Chapter 2: The English ' Transplantations'



A thorough study of Chapter Two should enable the student to understand:

1. The differences between the Jamestown and Plymouth colonies in terms of objectives, types of settlers, early problems, and reasons for success.

2. The causes and significance of Bacon's Rebellion.

3. The significance of the Caribbean colonies in the British-American colonial system.

4. The background of the Massachusetts Bay colony and its founders, the Puritans.

5. The conditions in Puritan Massachusetts Bay that spawned such dissenters as Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson.

6. The expansion of the original settlements, and the influences of the New World frontier on the colonists.

7. The efforts made by the Dutch to establish a colony, and the reasons for their failure.

8. The reasons for the founding of each of the original thirteen colonies.

9. The early economic, religious, and political factors in the colonies that tended to produce sectional differences.

10. The effect of the Glorious Revolution on the development of the American colonies.


Main Themes

1. The origins and objectives of England's first settlements in the New World.

2. How and why English colonies differed from one another in purpose and administration.

3. The problems that arose as colonies matured and expanded, and how colonists attempted to solve them.

4. The impact that events in England had on the development of colonies in British America.




1. antinomianism: The belief that people cannot obtain salvation through good works but that "faith alone" is all that is necessary. Seventeenth-century authorities feared that antinomians would feel that it was not necessary to work for the betterment of the community and might even put themselves above the rules and regulations that governed society.

2. covenant: Essentially an agreement in which people are united for a specific purpose. Rooted in Protestant theology, such agreements were the basis for church governments (especially among Calvinist congregations) and, in time, influenced civil governments as well. In this way, the covenant concept helped establish the idea of government by the consent of the governed.

3. orthodox: Conforming to the accepted doctrines or system of beliefs of a group, refusing to deviate or alter one's beliefs (for example, orthodox Puritans).

4. proprietary colony: A colony whose charter was granted by the king to an individual or a group (proprietors). Although the charter might place certain restrictions on the proprietors, in general they were free to run the colony as they wished--appointing governors, establishing assemblies, dividing and granting land. Because most proprietors were essentially land speculators and concerned with profit (either from the sale of land or from quitrents), they usually relaxed political and religious restrictions so as to attract colonists. But even with these concessions, proprietary governments at times proved unpopular, and opposition to them was one source of turmoil in the late seventeenth century.

5. royal colony: A colony over which the king of England assumed control, granting it a royal charter in place of the charter it previously held. Not an act of tyranny, as often pictured, royalization guaranteed that England's laws (and English subjects' rights) would apply to colony and colonists. A royal governor was appointed by the king to see that such laws were carried out, and a council, composed of prominent men of the colony (appointed by the king, but with the advice of local leaders), was established to advise the executive. Most important, at least to the colonists in general, was the authorization of an elected legislature (variously known as the Commons House of Assembly, the House of Burgesses, and the like) to pass local laws and deal with problems particular to the colony. This legislative activity was naturally to conform to English law and was subject to royal approval or disallowance. In time, the council came to act as the upper house of the legislature, while the commons functioned as the lower, an arrangement that, to the colonists at least, strongly resembled the relationship that existed between the House of Commons and the House of Lords in England. This system varied from colony to colony and underwent many changes as it evolved; yet, by the end of the colonial era, most of the British-American colonies shared its basic institutional structure.

6. theocracygovernment in which the state is effectively managed or governed by an organized church or religion

7. autocracy / autocratic: government in which one person possesses unlimited power

8. monoculture - the cultivation or growth of a single crop in an agricultural economy, such as sugar on the Caribbean islands.



During the seventeenth century, colonies were established in British North America, and the colonists began to perceive themselves as a hybrid breed. Before 1660, most colonies began as private ventures (with charters from the king), but the motives that brought them into being were as varied as the sociopolitical systems they developed. After 1660, proprietary colonies became the norm, and charters indicated a closer tie between the "owners" of a colony and the king, who granted the charter. As a result of this colonization effort, by the 1680s England had an unbroken string of provinces stretching from Canada to the Savannah River. As the colonies matured, their inhabitants began to exhibit a concern for control of local affairs and an independence of interests that eventually came to trouble the British Empire. It was a time when colonists began to sense that they were both English and American, a dual personality that was to lead to trouble and confusion on both sides of the Atlantic. The problem was that at the very time that the American colonists were developing attitudes and institutions distinctly American, England, fully aware of the potential of its colonies, began to tighten its control of its possessions.


Chapter 2: Transplantations and Borderlands - 33

The colonies were business enterprises –
          financed by private companies, for profit
Few efforts to blend English society with the society of natives -
Isolate themselves from the Indians and create enclosed societies –

          little interracial marriage
Almost nothing worked out as they had planned
American society would develop its own habits and institutions


The Founding of Jamestown – 34

1607 - on the James River
104 men - inland site - intended to offer security
Low swampy - mosquitoes and malaria –

          thick woods, difficult to clear for cultivation
First 17 years particularly, a miserable and deadly place –

          too many gentlemen, not enough laborers
No women sent to Jamestown - without women, could not order domestic lives, no sense of permanence in community

·        ·        Violent Land - Single Men and Social Disorder from the Frontier to the Inner City

·        ·        David T. Courtwright, Harvard University Press, 1996 ISBN 0-674-27870-4

1608 - supply ship with new settlers - all but 38 or original 104 had died

Capt John Smith

·        ·        provided order & organization

·        ·        imposed work and order

·        ·        organized raids to steal food and natives

Only 12 died the next winter
1609 - John Smith returns to England


Reorganization - 34

New charter - the Virginia Company - for Jamestown

·        ·        selling stock to investors in England

·        ·        Additional stock offered to planters who would pay their own way

·        ·        Free passage for poor people in exchange for 7 years of indentured servitude

·        ·        600 left England for Virginia – some women & children


Troublesome voyage, one ship lost, many arrived late, succumbed to fever
Winter 1609-10 - Starving Time
Indians retaliated – from Smith’s previous raids

·        ·        barricaded settlers

·        ·        killed livestock

·        ·        cannibalism

·        ·        only 60 of 500 survived

Spring 1610 - new arrivals took survivors onboard to return to England - but met another supply ship and turned around

Effort to turn a profit in Jamestown resumed

First governor of Virginia arrives

·        ·        Lord DeLa Warr - harsh and rigid discipline

·        ·        Settlers continued to avoid work - hoping for communal sympathy

·        ·        Governor Dale (DeLaWarr’s successor... private ownership and cultivation of land.

·        ·        Increased military assaults on local Indians – increased protection for settlements


Tobacco - 35

Columbus observations in Cuba - natives smoking through the nose
Custom returned to Europe / England
Denounced by James I

·        ·        "so vile and stinking a custom"

·        ·        people not to imitate “the barbarous and beastly manners of the wild, godless, and slavish Indians”

Tobacco became a cash crop - driving territorial expansion


Expansion - 36

Headrights - 50 acre grants of land

·        ·        Each new settler would receive one Headright

·        ·        one per family member

·        ·        encouraging family migrations


Pay for passage - yours or another

·        ·        receive an additional headright

·        ·        Consolidated headrights could produce significant land holdings - a plantation


Populated the colony with craftsman and ironworkers
1619 –

·        ·        100 English women sent to Virginia - prospective brides

·        ·        could be purchased from the Virginia Company for 120 pounds of tobacco

·        ·        Promised colonists full rights of Englishmen and share in self government

·        ·        July 30, 1619, House of Burgesses meets for the first time

o       o       representative government in America 

·        ·        August 1619 - Dutch ship arrives with 20 Africans

o       o       beginning of African slavery in America


Up through 1670, indentured servitude remained popular but as costs rose, slavery became the preferred option

Expansion from 1619 forward facilitated by the suppression of the local Indians

·        ·        2 years of attacks on the Powhatan Indians

·        ·        Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan chief, kidnapped

o       o       converted to Christianity 1614

o       o       married John Rolfe

o       o       1614, accompanied husband to England

o       o       died while in England, buried in London.

·        ·        1622 - Powhatan's new chief, Opechancanough attacked

o       o       killed 347 settlers - English merciless retaliation

·        ·        1644 - last of Powhatan uprisings

·        ·        end of Indian challenges to eastern regions of Virginia

Exchanges of Agricultural Technology

Hostility of English Settlers

·        ·        Convinced their civilization was greatly superior to Indians

·        ·        More technologically advanced

o       o       Ocean going vessels

o       o       Muskets

o       o       Weapons

o       o       Tools

·        ·        John Smith blamed English inability to find gold on backwardness of natives – didn't appreciate it’s wealth, didn't have a monetary economy


Survival of Jamestown in significant part owed to  technology of natives

·        ·        Local farming knowledge

·        ·        Crop rotation – Corn Beans

·        ·        Girdling

·        ·        Variety of crops, planting patterns – around trees



Maryland and the Calverts - 38

George Calvert - the first Lord Baltimore
Colony as a real estate venture and retreat for English Catholics

1632 - charter granted to second Lord Baltimore

·        ·        "true and absolute lords and proprietors... ultimate sovereignty of the king - annual fee"


Good initial experience

·        ·        no Indian attacks

·        ·        no plagues

·        ·        no starving time


Protestants (Anglicans) outnumbered Catholics - policy of religious toleration

·        ·        1648 - "Act Concerning Religion"

o       o       freedom of worship to all Christians

·        ·        Jesuits and Puritans sought dominance

o       o       barred Catholics from voting

o       o       repealed the Toleration Act



Government evolved to a two house assembly with English appointed governor


Land distribution - distributed by Lord Baltimore(s) to aristocrats

·        ·        1640 - labor shortage - policy change - adopted a headright system

·        ·        Acres: 100 per adult male, 100 for wife & each servant, 50 for each child

·        ·        adult male controlled the ownership of land

·        ·        women had no property rights

Maryland - tobacco economy

·        ·        initially powered by indentured servants

·        ·        late 17th century (1675), transition to African slaves



Turbulent Virginia - 39

Westward expansion creates new Indian conflicts
1642 William Berkeley (governor)

·        ·        1644 puts down Indian uprising

·        ·        negotiated territorial demarcation lines – policy failed – first of many

·        ·        Berkley becomes autocratic – 1660s

·        ·        Revised voting rights –

o       o       Previously 17 year old males – now male landowners only

o       o       Infrequent elections

·        ·        Seeds of discontent


English Civil War 1649 (Cromwell) drives colonial growth
1640 - 1650 Virginia's population doubled - 8,000 to 16,000, by 1660, 40,000
Population growth pushed territorial expansion beyond negotiated boundaries

Bacon's Rebellion - 39

Nathaniel Bacon – wealthy, young, single, Cambridge graduate

White settlers resented restrictions on expansion
Nathaniel Bacon & others attacked western Indians
Defiance in Indian matters escalated to a challenge against the colonial government
Bacon's army attached Jamestown, burning it in a second attack
Bacon died of disease (dysentery) - British troops regained control


Incidents important because:

·        ·        Highlights struggle between white / Indian boundaries - westward expansion

·        ·        Settlers unwilling to abide by previous boundary negotiation / treaties

·        ·        Indians unwilling to give up their lands

·        ·        Eastern landowners vs. Western landowners - established vs. expansionist

·        ·        Insatiable appetite for land - free, young males, propertyless, single, minimal prospects - Courtwright theory

·        ·        Establishment had an interest in preventing social unrest from below –

·        ·        African slaves were easier to control and less dangerous than white free, former indentured servants



The Growth of New England - 40
Plymouth Plantation - 40

1608 - illegal to leave England without permission of the king
Religious separatists - Pilgrims - quietly left for Leyden, Holland

·        ·        Limited economic opportunity - excluded from skilled work

·        ·        Troubled by secular, tolerant Dutch society - impact on family / children

Consent of the king - provided they carry themselves peaceably

·        ·        historic concession by the crown - opened the door for other religious dissenters

·        ·        Set off to Virginia with the hope of spreading "the gospel of the Kingdom of Christ in those remote parts of the world."

1620 - September –

·        ·        left Plymouth, England: 35 saints, 67 strangers

·        ·        Sighted land in November

o       o       missed Virginia / New York

o       o       north of London Company colony, too late to go on
No legal basis for a colony

o       o       Signed the Mayflower Compact - with allegiance to the king

·        ·        Established colony at site of a former Indian village - abandoned 3 years earlier probably due to European introduced disease

·        ·        Winter of 1620 - 21,   50% mortality due to malnutrition, disease, exposure


Pilgrims less hostile toward Indians

·        ·        Indians weakened, reduced in number by European disease

·        ·        Squanto and Samoset befriended the Pilgrims - provided survival training

·        ·        1621 - William Bradford chosen as governor

·        ·        distributed land among families - shared 1 plow until 1640

·        ·        self interest coupled with communal interest

·        ·        1630 - Pilgrim population reaches 300

·        ·        1636 - Smallpox further decimated the Indian population



The Massachusetts Bay Experiment - 42

1625 - James I dies succeeded by Charles I

Restores Roman Catholicism, religious intoleration

Group of Puritans receive a land grant - Massachusetts Bay Company - business venture

·        ·        "Hard core Puritans" bought the charter to make this a Puritan expedition / experiment

·        ·        Colonists no longer responsible to company officials in England, only to themselves

·        ·        1630 - 17 ships, 1000 people - mostly family groups

·        ·        Over 10 years, spawned multiple towns: Boston, Cambridge, Roxbury, Dorchester, Watertown Ipswich, Concord, Sudbury

·        ·        Massachusetts Bay Company transformed itself into a colonial government.


Unlike England, each town church chose its minister and regulated its own affairs
The Church Power Circle –

·        ·        Ministers had no formal political power but exerted influence on church members

·        ·        Only church members (male) could vote or hold office

·        ·        Government protected the ministers - taxed the people (members & non-members of the church) to support the church

·        ·        Laws required church attendance

·        ·        Dissidents, if any, had no practical religious freedom

·        ·        Net effect: Theocracy


Early high mortality but helped by Indians and original Pilgrims

New arrivals brought tools and supplies

New arrivals came as family groups - sense of community & commitment



The Expansion of New England - 45

Connecticut Valley 100 miles west - 1630s
English families - fertile lands, isolation from religious focus of Puritans
1635 - Thomas Hooker & congregation - established Hartford
1639 - Hartford, Windsor, & Wethersfield - Fundamental Orders of Connecticut


Government similar to Mass Bay - more men the right to vote

1639 - Fundamental Orders of New Haven
    Stricter than Boston - remained independent
1662 - Royal Charter consolidates New Haven with the colony of Connecticut


Rhode Island - Roger Williams - abandon allegiance to Church of England
Called for separation of church & state (to protect the church from secular corruption)
1636 - Providence
1644 - Parliamentary Charter permitting establishment of government

·        ·        Rhode Island gave no support to the church and allowed liberty in religious concerns.


Anne Hutchinson

Female -
Only "elect" were entitled to any religious or political authority
Living righteous was not enough to be among the elect

Necessary to undergo a "conversion"

Massachusetts clergy who were not among the elect had no right to spiritual office

Challenge to assumptions about the role of women in Puritan society

Large following among women & other who resented oppressive character of colonial government

Put on trial for heresy - now there's a surprise

·        ·        Convicted of sedition and banished as a "woman not fit for our society"

·        ·        Backlash - Male clergy limited public activities of women within the congregation

·        ·        Hutchinson's followers began to migrate to New Hampshire & Maine



Settlers & Natives - 47

1635 - native Indians virtually wiped out by epidemics
Sold much of their land (already cleared)
Agronomy instruction - local foods, corn, beans, potatoes...planting of beans to replenish exhausted soil
Partners in fur trade - target for manufactured goods


Early peaceful relations did not last - demand for land - domestic animals

West to Connecticut Valley - more Indians

Indians went from simple aboriginals to heathens and savages - Christianize or pulverize

White incursions drives out native animals - necessary to the Indians

Indian population declined from 100,000 to 10,000 in 75 years



The Pequot War, King Philip’s War, and the Technology of Battle - 48
First major conflict – 1637

Land and trading rights English, Mohegan, & Narragansett vs. Pequot

English most savage – interesting choice of words…

Pequot Tribe savagely wiped out in 1637 - those not killed or burned to death, sold as slaves


1675 – King Philip’s (Metacoment) War

3 years of attacks

Whites gradually prevail

Mohawks ambush Metacomet, decapitate, take head to Boston

Wampanoags decimated & powerless to resist


Indians made use of new flintlock rifle – more effective / efficient

Colonists forbidden to instruct native how to use / repair weapons

Overwhelming numbers & firepower of English doomed Indians


The English Civil War - 49

Charles I - dissolved Parliament 1629 – ruled as absolute monarch

Reconvened Parliament to raise taxes
Dismissed them again twice in 2 years
1642 - Cavaliers vs. Roundheads - King vs. Parliament (Puritans)
1649 - Charles I beheaded - Oliver Cromwell elevated to Protector
1658 - Cromwell dies - his son (heir) unable to keep it together
1660 - Charles II returns to claim the throne - Stuart Restoration

·        ·        Charles II rewards faithful with land grants

·        ·     1660 - 75 four new colonies - Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania

·        ·        Goal of permanent settlement - proprietors with land and power, not quick profits


The Carolinas - 50

1663 & 1665 land grants for Carolina - west to the Pacific Ocean

Virtual absolute powers over their grants

·        ·        Reserved large estates for themselves

·        ·        Profit as landlords & land speculators - headright system with annual payments

·        ·        Religious Freedom - to everyone who would worship as a Christian

·        ·        Representative Assembly

·        ·        1669 - John Locke engaged to write Fundamental Constitution of Carolina

o       o       land distribution

o       o       social order

o       o       Didn't work out as planned


In the North –

·        ·        backwoods farmers

·        ·        isolated

·        ·        no aristocracy

·        ·        virtually no African slaves

In the South –

·        ·        fertile lands

·        ·        harbor at Charles Town

·        ·        prosperous economy

·        ·        aristocratic

·        ·        flourishing trade, including Indian slaves

·        ·        Barbados chief trading partner –

·        ·        immigrants bringing slaves & slave culture

·        ·        Antagonism between northern & southern regions

·        ·        1729 - Carolina split into two royal colonies - North & South Carolina



New Netherland, New York, and New Jersey - 51

1664 - Charles II granted his brother the Duke of York - New York & New Jersey

Already claimed by the Dutch –

·        ·        wedge between northern & southern English colonies

·        ·        English fleet captures New Amsterdam - becomes New York

Multinational population

No representative assembly but local governments

Religious toleration – no effort to impose Catholicism

Aristocratic landowners loyal to James, Duke of York

New Jersey carved out of southwestern New York



The Quaker Colonies - 53

Born of dissenting English Protestants - Quakers –

·        ·        Society of Friends

·        ·        Tremble at the name of the Lord

All people had divinity - Inner Light - all who cultivated divinity could attain salvation

Equality for women within the church including definition of church doctrine

No church government or paid clergy

Thee and thou were used –

·        ·        in larger society vernacular to address social inferiors


Pacifists - but not welcomed except for Rhode Island - why?

·        ·        Some received violently – put to death

1681 - William Penn, a Quaker, upon his father's death,

·        ·        Charles II paid off a debt with a land grant

·        ·        Between NY & Maryland, larger than England and Wales combined –

·        ·        Pennsylvania - Penn's Woods

·        ·        Representative Assembly

·        ·        Compensated Indians for land - no major conflicts with Indians in Penn's lifetime

·        ·        1703 - Lower counties - Delaware

o       o       established their own representative assembly




Borderlands and Middle Grounds – 54

British Empire in North America smaller & weaker than Spanish Empire


The Caribbean Islands (West Indies) – 54

1600 – 50 most English immigrants – Caribbean / Bermuda

Surrounded & threatened by Spanish empire

Indians never a significant factor – disease

Spanish claimed all Caribbean Islands

Populated / settled only the largest – Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico

English, French, Dutch settled smaller islands

English: Antigua, St. Kitts, Jamaica, Barbados

Constant invasions – Spanish, Dutch, Portuguese, French

Violent & turbulent place


Sugar monoculture

·        ·        cash crop - labor intensive

·        ·        Destroyed habitat, forests, limited land for food production

·        ·        Work too difficult for English indentured servants

·        ·        Rely on African slaves – 4:1 ratio


Masters and Slaves in the Caribbean – 55

Small white population great economic success

Large African population in bondage
1660 - Caribbean legal codes regulated relations between masters & slaves

·        ·        Whites had absolute authority over Africans.

·        ·        Master could murder a slave with impunity

Climate inhospitable to English
Caribbean unattractive as English colonization destination - North America preferred

Whites had no long term commitment to the land

White single men, no social infrastructure


·        ·        Create their own world despite hardships

·        ·        Preserve African religion & traditions


The Southwestern Borderlands – 57


Spanish empire – small presence in the region

Most Spanish influence to the south – Mexico, South America

American colonies: Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California

·        ·        Relatively unimportant economically

New Mexico most prosperous

·        ·        1800 – agriculture, 10,000 non-Indians

California colonized as a defensive response

·        ·        1769 – 86 San Diego, Monterey, San Francisco, Los Angeles

·        ·        Local population decimated by disease 66% fatal

·        ·        Conversion to Catholicism


Fortify claims to Texas – protect from other national colonization

·        ·        San Antonio 1731

North American colonies acted as buffers for the Spanish Empire

Spanish not committed to displacing natives but enlisting them

Not considered equals but neither as obstacles (as English viewed)



The Southeast Borderlands – 58

Spanish claim to Florida – 1560

St. Augustine – 1565

Spanish begin to move north – thwarted by Jamestown 1607

Carolinas – Georgia – continuing tension – English, Spanish

1668 English level St. Augustine

Spanish offer freedom to African slaves owned by English

Ft. Mose – north of St. Augustine – first free blacks in America

English desire a buffer colony - Georgia



The Founding of Georgia - 58

No action until 1732 - a 50 year moratorium
James Oglethorpe / Parliamentarian & military hero - autocratic
Military buffer against Spanish (Florida) –

·        ·        border transgressions into South Carolina

Refuge for the impoverished - debtors prison - honest debtors rotting in prison

·        ·        Excluded Africans - feared slave revolts

·        ·        Excluded Catholics - feared Spanish sympathies

·        ·        Prohibited rum

Few debtors, but many impoverished tradesmen & artisans

·        ·        English & Scottish, Swiss, German, small group of Jews

Strict rules, labor intensive agriculture ensured failure –

·        ·        Colonists demanded the right to buy slaves

1740 - removed limitation on individual land holdings

1750 - removed the ban on slavery

1751 - returned control of the colony to the king –

·        ·        established a representative assembly

1770 - 20,000 non-Indian residents - 50% slaves


Middle Ground - 59

Contest between empires, immigrants, natives

Balance of Power on the fringes of empire – western borders

·        ·        Carved out compromises – mutual concessions

·        ·        Needed to cultivate relationships with tribes – adapt

·        ·        Indians viewed Europeans as both menacing and appealing

·        ·        Weapons – plus & minus, arbitrators among tribes

·        ·        Indians had no sense of nationhood

o       o       Relationships based on ceremony & kinship

o       o       Often prolonged violence between tribes

As time passed, especially post 1776

·        ·        Relationships deteriorated

·        ·        Indians subjugated and removed




The Evolution of the British Empire - 61
The Drive for Reorganization - 61

English colonies had originated as a series of separate projects

Mid 17th century (1650) pressure for a more rational, uniform structure to the empire

Imperial reorganization

·        ·        Increase profitability

·        ·        Empower English government to supervise the colonies

·        ·        Contribute to the mercantile system - foundation of the English economy

·        ·        Exclude foreigners from colonial trade / monopolize trade relations with the colonies

o       o       1650/51 - Dutch ships excluded from colonies

o       o       1660 - Navigation Acts further regulation of colonial commerce

o       o       Required colonists to export certain items only to England / English possessions

o       o       1663 - All goods shipped to the colonies had to pass through English ports (increased cost / taxes)

o       o       1673 - Duties on colonial coastal trade - appointment of customs officials



The Dominion of New England

Massachusetts acting semi autonomous

·        ·        Charles II stripped Massachusetts authority over New Hampshire

·        ·        New Hampshire a separate royal colony

·        ·        Mass. defied instructions to enforce Navigation Acts

·        ·        Charles II revoked Mass Corporate Charter made it a royal colony


1686 - James II - Single Dominion of New England

·        ·        eliminated assemblies

·        ·        Combined the colonial governments - Mass, NH, NY, RI, CN

·        ·        Single governor- Edmund Andros – unpopular Anglican




The Glorious Revolution

1688 - Unpopular James II dethroned - by Parliament - bloodless coup

William of Orange (Netherlands) & Mary (James II daughter) ascend to throne

Bostonians moved to oust Andros - uncontested in England

Restoration of separate colonial governments


New Massachusetts Charter

·        ·        Massachusetts & Plymouth combined as a royal colony

·        ·        Replaced church membership with property ownership as the basis for voting

·        ·        Required Puritan leaders to tolerate Anglican worship


In New York –

·        ·        Jacob Leisler rebels in NY

·        ·        heads government for 2 years

·        ·        1691 - treason - hanged, drawn, and quartered



·        ·        Protestant dissenters drove out Lord Baltimore's (Catholic) officials

·        ·        Petitioned for a charter as a royal colony - granted in 1691, along with a colonial assembly


Results of Glorious Revolution:

·        ·        Revived representative assemblies

·        ·        Thwarted attempts for colonial consolidation

·        ·        Legitimized position that colonists had some rights

·        ·        English government needed to consider colonial views


Yet, these actions made them more a part of the imperial system than previously





Chapter 3: Society and Culture in Provincial America



A thorough study of Chapter Three should enable the student to understand:

1. The disagreement among historians concerning the origins of slavery.

2. The sources of colonial labor, including indentured servants, women, and imported Africans.

3. Immigration patterns and their effect on colonial development.

4. The ways in which factors of soil and climate determined the commercial and agricultural development of the colonies, despite crown attempts to influence production.

5. The emergence of the plantation system, and its impact on southern society.

6. The New England witchcraft episode as a reflection of the Puritan society.

7. The reasons for the appearance of a variety of religious sects in the colonies, and the effect of the Great Awakening on the colonists.

8. The beginnings of colonial industry and commerce, and the early attempts at regulation by Parliament.

9. The ways in which colonial literature, education, science, law, and justice were diverging from their English antecedents.


Main Themes

1. How the colonial population grew and diversified.

2. How the colonial economy expanded to meet the needs of this rapidly growing population.

3. The emergence of a particularly American "mind and spirit."



1. class structure: The division of society into recognizable groups. Generally based on wealth, these divisions are also affected by education, family ties, religion, and a variety of other factors recognized by the society in which the divisions exist.

2. Enlightenment: The intellectual movement that dominated the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe. Believing that the universe operated through natural laws that human beings, using their powers of reason, could understand, "enlightened" thinkers argued that once these laws were understood, people could devise means of living within them. Also called the "Age of Reason," this era was marked by an explosion of activity that brought about significant advances in science (especially natural science), education, and government. Stressing that there were certain "natural rights" (life, liberty, and property) that were given to all people--and that it was the duty of government to protect these rights from selfish individuals (those not allowing reason to control their actions)--philosophers of this age called forth many of the principles that Americans later used in their struggle with Britain. From the Enlightenment came the beliefs that freedom is the natural condition of humanity, that governments should be responsible to the governed, and that it is the right of the people to oppose a government that violates the natural rights of its citizens.

3. evangelicalism: The adherence to the belief that salvation comes through the personal recognition of one's sins, the awareness of one's inability to save oneself, and the acceptance of Christ as the only means of redemption. The process is usually a highly emotional one that culminates in the rebirth ("born again" state) of the sinner and his or her acceptance as one of the evangelical community of believers. The evangelical emphasis on the spiritual rather than the worldly was particularly appealing to the lower classes and to others (for example, women and slaves) who sought a means to affirm their personal worth. This often put evangelicals at odds with their social "betters," who regarded the evangelicals' rejection of those things that defined the social classes (fine dress, leisure activities, civil and religious ceremonies, and such) as an attack on the status and authority of ruling elites.

4. nuclear family: The social unit composed of father, mother, and children.

5. paper money in the colonies: In an effort to overcome the lack of money in America, some colonial governments issued paper money to serve as currency. The problem, however, was to get the colonists to accept these paper bills at face value. So, to keep the bills from declining in value, some colonies employed a system (currency finance) in which paper money would be issued for only a specific purpose (for example, to buy goods that the government needed, to pay for services to the government, and so on) and would be accepted by the government, at face value, as payment for taxes or other debts owed to the colony. It was generally hoped that this would be the only exchange and that the money would not circulate; but if it did, the fact that the government would accept it as full payment was believed to be enough to keep it from depreciating greatly. In practice, however, the system did not work. The bills lost their value as they circulated, creating the inflation that opponents of paper money feared. Nevertheless, under a more controlled situation, the concept was indeed workable and, with some changes, is used today.

6. patriarchal: Having to do with a social system in which the father is the head of the family.

7. slavery: A legal status in which an individual is owned by another individual who controls his or her actions and benefits from his or her labor. The status is for life (unless altered by the owner) and is inherited, usually through the mother.

8. staple crop: The primary export (cash) crop of a region, the crop on which the region's economy rests. In the Chesapeake colonies, the staple was tobacco; farther south, it was rice or indigo. In later years, sugar (the staple in the Indies) was important in some areas on the mainland, but in time the classic staple--cotton--came to dominate the South's economy.

9. SES – Socio-Economic Status: An assessment of an individual or family's relative economic and social ranking.

10. Primogeniture: the passing of all inherited property to the first born son.  Did not take root in New England.



After the turmoil of the late seventeenth century had subsided, it became evident that the English-American colonies and the colonists who populated them were beginning to develop characteristics that were distinctly "American." Although still essentially transplanted English subjects and still greatly influenced by European ideas and institutions, the colonists were also diverse, aggressive, and as concerned with their own success as with that of the empire of which they were part. New sources of wealth and new patterns of trade shaped the growth of the colonies, and new immigrants, not always from England, added a dimension unknown in the mother country. Although differences in geography, economy, and population gave each colony its own particular character and problems, there remained many common concerns--not the least of which was how to deal with, or avoid dealing with, British mercantile restrictions. In short, between 1700 and 1750, Britain's American colonies began to show signs of being both English and American; they were indeed "different," and it is this difference that Chapter Three explores.



Chapter 3:  Society and Culture in Provincial America - 65

American societies differed considerably from the society that many settlers had attempted to re-create - the society of England
They differed also from one another - the physical environment was different - the population more diverse.
Culture was molded to some degree by the physical environment.
The colonists were multi-cultural.
Colonists emulated the English yet had their own unique characteristics, collectively and uniquely with their own region, which would affect their society well beyond the colonial period.

The Colonial Population - 66

By the late 17th century, Europeans and Africans became the dominant populations on the Atlantic coast

Indentured Servitude – 66

Young men & women bound for a fixed term of service – 4 – 7 years
Received passage, food, shelter
Often left service with no tools or possessions
25% women – could expect to marry upon completion of service (gender ratio)
Other young men - younger sons of the lesser gentry, men who stood to inherit no land
Unaristocratic - dominated by laborers and indentured servants
Some shiploads of convicts to be sold into servitude
Prisoners taken in battles with Scots and Irish and other undesirables: orphans, vagrants, paupers
Indentured servants helped fill the labor void - Headright system complimented this system
Late 17th century - indentured servants one of the largest elements of the population
Former indentured servants, mostly male, without land, jobs, families & prospects - source of social unrest – Bacon’s Rebellion (Courtwright)
Family units – highly mobile - pull up stakes & move
Reduced English birthrate and increased English prosperity reduced emigration
After 1700, indentures avoided southern colonies - arduous work, minimal opportunity
Chesapeake landowners uncomfortable with climate created by former servants - increasing popularity of African slavery

Birth and Death - 67

By 1700 non-Indian population in English colonies 250,000 - 25% African.
After 1650s, New England / Mid Atlantic, natural increase became the most important source of population growth
New England quadrupled 1650 – 1700

Exceptional longevity - nearly equal to the 20th century
Men who survived infancy lived to average of 71, women 70 -
          10 years higher than English, 20 years higher than the south
Chesapeake -
    markedly higher mortality rates
    expectancy for white men: 40
    1 in 4 children died in infancy, half by age 20
    Widows, widowers, and orphaned substantial portion of the white population
Improvement in sex ratio assisted population increase
    Early Chesapeake 75% male, New England 60%

Medicine in the Colonies – 68

High death rates of women who bore children
No understanding of infection and sterilization
Bacteria transmitted by garbage & water
Women establish network of midwives – herbal / homeopathic
          Opposed by male doctors
          Medical technology 4 biles
          Bleeding a normal practice – George Washington
                   No scientific observation or study

Women and Families in the Chesapeake - 69

Young brides: 16 - 20, extraordinarily high mortality rate
Few families remained intact for long - male authority undermined
Servants forbidden to marry until terms of service complete
    Premarital sex common
    Pregnancies resulted in harsh treatment
        fines, whippings, additional time of service, loss of children after weaning
        Bastard children bound out as indentures

Women became pregnant once every two years
    Average of 8 children, 5 would die in infancy
    Childbirth frequent cause of female death - few survived to see their children mature
Gender ratio gave women more choice in husbands, without paternal interference in many cases
Widows often remarried - as did widowers - complex family relationships
    Role of peacemaker may also have enhanced female authority in the home

Large number of orphans

Early 1700s sex ratio becoming more equal
    Life expectancy increased
    Natural reproduction accounting for white population increase
    Families grew more stable
    Return to more male domination of family relationships
    Life for white people became less perilous and less arduous. (Courtwright)

Women and Families in New England - 70

Sex ratio reasonably balanced
Women married young produced children well into their 30s - more likely to survive
Average family raised 6 - 8 children to maturity
Families remained intact - fewer widows
Women less choice over conditions of marriage - fewer unmarried men - fathers control
White parents often lived to see their grandchildren grow to maturity.

Men depended on fathers for land, women needed dowries
Fewer premarital pregnancies, although Puritan premarital pregnancy rate as high as 20%
Family relationships defined by religious belief - more so than in the south
Men and women equal before God
Family both the principal economic and religious unit
Women were expected to be modest and submissive –
    unless they were gardening, raising poultry, or tending cattle
    which they did after cooking, cleaning, and washing
    and taking the kids to soccer.

The Beginnings of Slavery in British America - 71

By late 17th century (late 1600s) - African slaves becoming plentiful
African tribes captured enemy tribes in battle and sold them into slavery
Less than 5% of Africans brought to the New World went to English colonies - Caribbean / Brazil – sugar

Conditions of middle passage were horrible – “Roots” tight pack / loose pack
Treated as property / cargo
Females sexually abused

1695 - Royal African Company monopoly on slave trading expired
    Prices dropped, new arrivals increased
1700 - 10% African overall, concentrated in southern colonies, some places a majority population
    In the Chesapeake - more slaves being born than imported
1700 to 1760 Africans increased tenfold to 250,000
    16,000 in New England, 29,000 in middle colonies, 205,000 in the south
    Flow of white laborers to the south had all but stopped

White / English assumptions about racial superiority / inferiority
    Previously manifested in relations with Indians
    Previously manifested in relations with Irish (colonization)

Early 18th century - Slave Codes passed into law
In Spanish America, mixed race had higher status than pure African - no such distinction in English America
    Any African ancestry was enough to classify a person as black.

Changing Sources of European Immigration - 75

Early 18th century English emigration declined
    better economic conditions, government restrictions, massive depopulation in some regions
French, German, Swiss, Irish, Welsh, Scottish, Scandinavian continued or increased
    French Huguenots some to America, German Protestants for religious reasons
    Germans following wars with Louis XIV of France (3000 to America - Pennsylvania Dutch {Deutsch})
    Germans also to New Bern, North Carolina in 1710 (600)

Most numerous - Scotch-Irish, Scottish Presbyterians, via Ireland - economic & religious motivation
Pushed out the edges of the wilderness - little regard for who owned the land
Scottish Highlanders - many to North Carolina

1700 - non-Indian population less than 250,000; by 1775 over 2,000,000
Non-Indian population doubled every twenty-five years.

The Colonial Economies - 77

English colonies were commercial ventures
Substantial trade with native population and French settlers to the north,
and to a lesser extent, with the Spanish to the south & west

Farming dominated - subsistence agriculture, local, intercolonial, and export markets

The Southern Economy - 77

Chesapeake - tobacco economy - strong European demand
Production often exceeded demand - boom / bust
After 1700, tobacco plantations often had several dozen slaves

South Carolina & Georgia - rice production along coastal areas - malarial swamps - dependent on slaves
Africans had greater resistance than whites to malaria and other local diseases
1740 - South Carolina - indigo blue dye - grown on high ground not suitable for rice

Less commercial and industrial commerce in the south
Few cities of any size
This southern economic pattern would endure for 200 plus years

The Northern Economic and Technological Life - 78

Agriculture dominated - more diverse with an emerging commercial sector
Conditions for farming less favorable - cold weather, rocky soil - subsistence farming

Conditions better in southern New England, middle colonies - NY, Penn, Connecticut River Valley
Cultivated staple crops for consumption and sale

Industry at home: weaving, soap, candles, carpentry
Towns: cobblers, blacksmiths riflemakers, cabinetmakers, silversmiths, printers
Harnessed water power - saw mills, grain mills, cloth, milling lumber, ship building

Iron Act of 1750 limited development also, Hat and Woolen Acts
Fledgling iron industry – mostly in the north
Also limited by labor supply, inadequate domestic market, infrastructure, transportation

Exploitation of the natural resources: fur, lumber, mining, fishing:
    Commodities that could be exchanged for manufactured goods
    Produced a thriving commercial class

The Extent and Limits of Technology – 80

Many farmers did own:
    a plow, pots / kettles, guns or rifles, 4 wheel wagons, spinning wheels / looms
    Too poor or isolated to acquire them
    Ability to acquire manufactured goods lagged behind supply

The Rise of Colonial Commerce - 80

Colonies had no specie - gold or silver coins - barter system
Uncertain quantity, markets, transportation - somehow, the economy prospered
Triangular trade is an over simplification


Adventurous entrepreneurs - merchant class - Boston, NY, Philadelphia
Protection from foreign competition - for colonial trade - Navigation Acts
Developed markets in the French, Spanish, and Dutch West Indies
Further expansion possible because society itself was rapidly expanding
    As we have seen in the last 30 years in the south - rust belt north, sun belt south.

The Rise of Consumerism – 81

Consumption of consumer goods – associated with social status – sound familiar?
Increasing division by socio-economic class / SES (Socioeconomic Status)
People of means intent on demonstrating their rank
Product of industrial revolution – more affordable goods available
Demand driven by advertising – journals, newspapers
Former luxuries now necessities (tea, linens, glassware, manufactured cutlery, crockery, furniture)
Social graces more prized – ladies / gentlemen, manners

Refinement of public places
Public parks, squares, boulevards – a place for social interaction (Boston Common)
Public stages for social display

Patterns of Society - 83

Deeply entrenched class system in England – not replicated in America
English class structure based on control of limited land
American class structure based on control of limited labor - opportunities for mobility

The Plantation - 83

Most early plantations were rough and relatively small estates, seldom more than 30 people
Self contained communities - living in close proximity - owner and farmer often worked side by side

Larger plantations - Planter class
    Substantial slave work force, house servants, frequent sexual liaisons
    Highly stratified society
Small farmers could not compete with wealthy planters - dependent relationship for marketing crops etc.
Planters dominated the southern agrarian economy

Plantation Slavery - 84

Mid 18th century, 75% of all blacks lived on plantations of at least 10 slaves; half lived in communities of 50 or more
Africans developed a strong and elaborate family structure
Family structures were in constant jeopardy - developed extended kinship networks
African languages - South Carolina Gullah - English / African - whites could not understand

The Puritan Community - 85

Town was the social unit of New England - covenants among members
Lived in a village with neighbors close by
Little interference from colonial government - yearly town meetings, selectmen, limited to adult males
Membership in church, evidence of grace, conversion, etc., required for full membership
All residents required to attend church
Primogeniture did not take root - land divided up -
after 3 or 4 generations, plots too small - need to move on

The Witchcraft Phenomenon - 87

1680's & 1690's - Salem, Massachusetts
Adolescent girls, strange behaviors - accused West Indian servants who practiced voodoo
Hundreds of women accused - 19 put to death before 1692
Original accusers later recanted - made it all up
Perhaps inspired by social or class differences or economic opportunity
   Some had inherited substantial land or property

Cities - 87

1770 - Philadelphia 28,000;   New York 25,000 larger than most English urban centers
Boston 16,000; Charlestown, SC, 12,000; Newport, RI, 11,000
Trading centers for farmers, marts for international trade
Disparities of wealth - elegance in servants, homes, clothing, social activities
Contrasted to tradesmen, workers, indigents - social distinctions real and visible
Center of industry, ironworks, distilleries, schools, shops
Urban social problems; crimes vice, pollution, epidemics / constables & fire departments

Social discourse - new ideas - Printers, Taverns, Coffee houses
    Revolutionary ideas started in the cities

Awakenings and Enlightenments - 89

Two powerful and competing forces:
1:  A personal God, intimately involved with the world, watching individual lives
        Supported phenomena of witchcraft, stern moral code, faith more important than intellect
2:  Spirit of the Enlightenment - importance of science and human reason
        Individuals had control over their own lives and society,
        World explained and structured along rational scientific lines
Intellectual climate formed by these competing views

The Pattern of Religions - 89

Religion took on a new and distinctive pattern
Many different faiths - Ecclesiastical patchwork
Toleration of religious diversity - conditions virtually required it

Anglicanism (Church of England) was established by law in Virginia, Maryland, NY, Carolinas, Georgia
Everyone to be taxed to support the church - only successful in Virginia & Maryland
There were Puritans, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Calvinist, Dutch Reformed,
    many varieties of American Baptists, believers in predestination and believers in salvation by free will.

Protestants tolerant of one another but not so much Catholics
Puritans considered the Pope the anti-Christ
Catholics persecuted in Maryland - founded for their protection
Catholicism stronger in Spanish America - especially in the southwest
Jews numbered no more than 2000, largest number in NYC
    Nowhere could they vote or hold office
    Only in Rhode Island could they practice their religion openly

The Decline of Piety
Multiple religions caused some to question if any particular sect had a monopoly on truth & grace
Westward migration - scattering of religious opportunity - secular practices, materialistic
Enlightenment challenged traditional religious thought

The Great Awakening - 90

1730s and 1740s - First great American Revival
Targeted where social and economic tensions were greatest
Women constituted majority of the converts - social and familial subjugation
Younger sons of third & fourth generation of settlers - little land inheritance
Start anew their relationship with God - desire for intense religious experience
John & Charles Wesley - founders of Methodism
George Whitefield - atone for sins admitting them directly to God - clergy not necessary
    Experience faith outside the traditional church
Jonathan Edwards - Puritan Orthodox - absolute sovereignty of God, depravity of man
    predestination, sense of election, salvation by God's grace alone
    (later president of Princeton University)
The Great Awakening - religious epidemic
    Weakened authority of established churches
    Religion more open and diverse
    Also, strengthened the hold of orthodox Calvinist belief of many Americans

The Enlightenment - 91

Product of great scientific and intellectual discoveries in Europe in 17th century
Natural laws regulated the work of nature
Power of human reason and scientific inquiry
Reason, not faith, could create progress
Humans had moral sense on which they could rely to tell right from wrong
Undermined the power of traditional authority
Emphasis on education

Francis Bacon
1561 - 1626

people are the servants and interpreters of nature, that truth is not derived from authority, and that knowledge is the fruit of experience. Bacon is generally credited with having contributed to logic the method known as ampliative inference, a technique of inductive reasoning (see Induction). Previous logicians had practiced induction by simple enumeration, that is, drawing general conclusions from particular data. Bacon's method was to infer by use of analogy, from the characteristics or properties of the larger group to which that datum belonged, leaving to later experience the correction of evident errors. Because it added significantly to the improvement of scientific hypotheses, this method was a fundamental advancement of the scientific method.
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Baruch Spinoza
1632 - 1677

the universe is identical with God, who is the uncaused “substance” of all things.
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Rene Descartes
1596 - 1650

“In our search for the direct road to truth, we should busy ourselves with no object about which we cannot attain a certitude equal to that of the demonstration of arithmetic and geometry.” He therefore determined to hold nothing true until he had established grounds for believing it true. The single sure fact from which his investigations began was expressed by him in the famous words Cogito, ergo sum,”I think, therefore I am.”
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

John Locke
1632 - 1704

attacked the theory of divine right of kings. In brief, Locke argued that sovereignty did not reside in the state but with the people, and that the state is supreme, but only if it is bound by civil and what he called “natural” law. Many of Locke's political ideas, such as those relating to natural rights, property rights, the duty of the government to protect these rights, and the rule of the majority, were later embodied in the U.S. Constitution.   Locke further held that revolution was not only a right but often an obligation, and he advocated a system of checks and balances in government. He also believed in religious freedom and in the separation of church and state.
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Locke's Influence on the Declaration of Independence

John Locke's position according to Encarta

Declaration of Independence

attacked the theory of divine right of kings. In brief, Locke argued that sovereignty did not reside in the state but with the people, and that the state is supreme, but only if it is bound by civil and what he called “natural” law. Many of Locke's political ideas, such as those relating to natural rights, property rights, the duty of the government to protect these rights, and the rule of the majority, were later embodied in the US Constitution.   Locke further held that revolution was not only a right but often an obligation, and he advocated a system of checks and balances in government. He also believed in religious freedom and in the separation of church and state.

WHEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.

WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness -- That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of Great- Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.

Education – 91

Massachusetts – 1647 law every town to support a public school
          not full compliance – but a good idea

Quakers and other sects operated church schools
Women conducted “dame schools” in their homes
High degree of white male literacy
Higher education generally limited to the upper class – nonexistent for females
Slave system discouraged literacy for slaves
          May encourage slaves to question their station in society
Colleges operated by churches – primarily for training of ministers
          Harvard, William & Mary, Yale, Princeton
University of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Columbia – early secular universities

The Spread of Science - 94

Increasing interest in scientific knowledge
Copernican astronomy and Newtonian physics
Franklin discovery of electricity – lightening and electricity the same
Scientific experimentation - inoculation against smallpox 1720s vs.
          disease as a punishment for sin

Concepts of Law and Politics - 94

Not until well into the 18th century (1763) did authorities in England try to impose the common law on the colonies
Too late - differences well established - courts were different, punishments were different
          In a labor scarce society – incarceration undesirable
1734 Peter Zenger trial - criticisms of government were not libelous if factually true
Law either divine will or natural order, but not earthly sovereign
Emerging differences between American and British political systems
Colonial assemblies - running their own affairs - independent of Parliament
1763 - England tried to tighten control - too late - the seeds of independence had already been sewn

Class Exercises -

1.Where might you find these words?

"All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness."

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such a course.

We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of those who suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it, and to insist upon the institution of a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.

Chapter 4: The Empire under Strain



A thorough study of Chapter Four should enable the student to understand:

1. The primary reasons for the growth of the differences between colonial Americans and the British government that resulted in a clash of interests.

2. The colonial attitudes toward England and toward other colonies before the Great War for empire.

3. The causes of the Great War for empire, and the reasons for the French defeat.

4. The effects of the war on the American colonists and on the status of the colonies within the British Empire.

5. The options available to the British for dealing with the colonies in 1763, and the reasons for adopting the policies that they chose to implement.

6. The importance of the series of crises from the Sugar Act through the Coercive Acts, and how each crisis changed colonial attitudes toward the mother country.

7. The change in American attitudes toward Parliament, the English constitution, and the king. What such slogans as "No taxation without representation" really meant.

8. The significance of the convening of the First Continental


Main Theme

How it was that colonists who, for the most part, had enjoyed benefits unattainable by their European counterparts, rose in rebellion against the nation that was responsible for their circumstances.



1. democracy: A system of government in which the ultimate power to govern resides with the people, and they exercise that power directly. Although not the prevailing system in colonial America (it is actually viewed with horror by colonial elites), elements of democracy were found in such institutions as church covenants and town meetings.

2. federation: A union of sovereign powers in which each unit retains the power to control its own local affairs.

3. imperialism: The policy of extending a nation's sovereignty to include possessions beyond the boundaries of the nation (colonies). In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this was directly associated with mercantilism.

4. Loyalists (Tories): Americans who, for many and varied reasons, remained loyal to the king and were called Tories

5. republic: A government in which, as in a democracy, the power to govern lies with the people, but the people exercise this power through elected representatives. Colonial elites distrusted this form as well, especially when low qualifications to vote threatened to allow mass participation. Nevertheless, this system was more acceptable than direct democracy was. For example, examine the colonial legislatures.

6. sovereignty: Supreme power, independent of and unlimited by any other force, as in a sovereign state.



Despite a number of disagreements, by 1763, Anglo-American ties seemed stronger than ever. The colonies had prospered under British rule, had developed local institutions through which they seemed to govern themselves, and finally, with the defeat of France, appeared ready to expand into the heart of the continent. However, no sooner was the war ended than the British began to alter the pre-1763 system in an effort to make it more efficient and more responsive to control from London. The means chosen to do this (enforced regulations to end the illegal trade that had flourished under salutary neglect, plus taxation to pay for the colonial administration) were seen in the colonies as threats to the way of life they had come to accept as rightfully theirs. Rising in protest, the colonies faced a British government determined to assert its authority, and, with neither side willing to give in, the cycle of action and reaction continued. Finally, spurred on by a propaganda campaign that characterized the mother country as a tyrant determined to bring America to its knees, the colonies acted. The Intolerable Acts proved the final straw, and in September 1774, twelve British provinces met in a Continental Congress in hopes that a united front would cause London to reconsider and that conflict would be avoided. But it did not work, and in the spring, fighting occurred at Lexington and Concord. Although independence was not yet declared, the American Revolution had begun.





The Empire in Transition – 99

Up to 1750, the English government left the colonies alone
Trade regulation laxly administered - easily circumvented

1763 - England began to reign in the colonies with new laws, taxes, and administration

1775 -  First shots fired - Relationship had been damaged beyond repair


Loosening Ties - 100

English government became British government following Treaty of Union 1707
Colonies were left within broad limits, to go their own ways


A Tradition of Neglect – 100

British Parliament established growing supremacy over the king

George I - 1714 - 27;    George II - 1727 - 60   both German born

Robert Walpole - first modern prime minister (1721 - 42) refrained from strict enforcement

·        ·        believed relaxed trading restrictions would stimulate commerce

·        ·        Colonial administration remained decentralized and inefficient

·        ·        Government departments had local and colonial responsibilities – local prevailed in terms of interest

·        ·        Appointments not by merit - Colonies seldom visited by officials

By 1750s, colonial legislatures looked upon themselves as mini parliaments, with sovereignty

Decisions could be vetoed by governor or Privy Council



The Colonies Divided – 100

Commonality - viewing themselves as loyal English subjects
Uniqueness - different colonies viewed each other as something close to foreigners
Parochial interests - identity with the colony independent from a cohesive set of colonies
Yet, continual settlement along the east coast, roads, trade, and postal service loosely bound them together

1754 - French and Indian War (French & Indians vs. British)
Intercolonial cooperation and strategy - met in Albany
Albany Plan for central colonial government but none approved it

The Struggle for the Continent – 101

1756 - 1763 - Seven Years War –

European phase - struggle between England & France trade & colonial supremacy

In America – the French and Indian War (French and Indians vs. British)


New France and the Iroquois Nation – 101

1670s Marquette & Joliet - Green Bay / Lake Michigan to southern Arkansas
1682 - LaSalle to Mississippi Delta
1743 - French explorers pus west to the Rockies
Lay claim to the interior of the continent - supported by widely separated communities, forts, & missions
Ft. Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, guarded the St. Lawrence River; Quebec City, Montreal, Sault St. Marie, Detroit, New Orleans in 1718, Biloxi and Mobile

Large and powerful Indian population - concerned with self protection
French were tolerant - willing to coexist, without imposing French social behaviors – British sought to impose their social norms

Iroquois Indians - powerful eastern nation of 5 tribes
Traded with English, French, and Dutch - played one off the other
English, French, and Iroquois all had eyes on the Ohio Valley
    East coast Indians being pushed there by English expansion


Anglo-French Conflicts - 102

King William's War 1689 – 97

·        ·        produced indecisive battles between English & French

Queen Anne's War 1701 – 13

·        ·        Conflicts with Spanish, French and their Indian allies

·        ·        Treaty of Utrecht - French territory to England - Nova Scotia & Newfoundland

King George's War 1744 - 48 - no major territorial exchanges

North American relationships among English, French & Iroquois deteriorated

·        ·        French subsequently build forts in Ohio Valley - Fort Duquesne, near Pittsburgh

·        ·        British responded with Fort Necessity –

·        ·        Battles followed - British, under George Washington surrendered –

·        ·        Beginning of French & Indian War

The Great War for the Empire – 103

French & Indian War 1754 – 63

Three distinct phases
1. Fort Necessity debacle in 1754

·        ·        Colonists managed mostly on their own - minimal British assistance

·        ·        British fleet failed to prevent landing of French reinforcements

·        ·        Gen. Braddock failed to retake Fort Necessity

·        ·        Western settlers targeted - many withdrew east

2. 1756 - France and England European war - Seven Years War –

·        ·        realignment of alliances

·        ·        France & Austria vs. England & Prussia

·        ·        1757 - William Pitt - UK Sec of State - transformed American war under British control

·        ·        Forcibly enlisting colonists / impressment - seize goods from farmers - forced quartering of soldiers

·        ·        Resisted by colonists

3. 1758 - Tide turns in favor of British

·        ·        French outnumbered - suffered from poor harvest - British regulars seizing French strongholds

·        ·        Ft. Duquesne, Quebec on 9/13/1759 signaled the end of the American phase of the war

·        ·        1760 - French army surrenders to English General Amherst at Montreal

·        ·        British resorted to brutal expedients - Population dispersal - scalp bounties

·        ·        French Acadians scattered as far south as Louisiana - today's Cajuns

·        ·        Inspiration for Longfellow's Evangeline - Web site 1, Web site 2



Results of French & Indian War

Expanded England's territorial claims - France ceded land east of the Mississippi - see red area

Enlarged Britain's debt

Resentment toward Americans - ineffective war effort, insufficient financial support for war

Colonial merchants selling food & supplies to the French

Identified a need to restructure and increase authority over the colonies

From the American point of view

Colonies for the first time acted in concert

Resentment over impressment & quartering of soldiers

Return of authority to colonial assemblies confirmed illegitimacy of English interference

For the Indians of the Ohio Valley

British victory was disastrous - allied themselves with the loser

Iroquois not much better - lack of enthusiasm interpreted as duplicity



The New Imperialism – 105


England at peace for first time in 50 years
Enormous debt - needed new revenues (mercantilism)
Attention directed to management of the colonies


Burdens of Empire – 106

Colonies - Unwilling to be taxed by Parliament, reluctant to tax themselves, defiant of trade regulations
Land itself of value - could support population, could produce taxes, imperial splendor

Host of problems:

  • British empire twice as large (French lands east of Mississippi)
  • Expansion desired - danger of renewed Indian resistance
  • Claims of jurisdiction - extension of old colonies? new colonies?
  • Expansion would require more soldiers - more money - England in debt already

Taxation administered by London to meet needs


1760 - George III ascends to the throne

·        ·        Disassembled existing coalitions - installed officials based on patronage / bribes - inherently unstable

·        ·        Intellectually, emotionally, and psychologically challenged for the job - bouts of insanity

George Grenville - Prime Minister in 1763 –

·        ·        Colonists indulged too long, compelled to obey laws and pay cost of defending & administrating the empire

·        ·        New system of control to be imposed


The British and the Tribes - 107

Proclamation of 1763 - forbidding settlers to advance beyond Appalachian Mountains

·        ·        London would control vs. colonial assemblies

·        ·        Limit military defense costs

·        ·        Slow migration from the east coast - colonial cash cow

·        ·        Reserve future land speculation for London vs. colonies

White settlers continued to swarm across the boundary and claim lands to the west and Ohio Valley

The Colonial Response - 108

British troops permanently stationed in colonies
Mutiny Act of 1765 –

·        ·        Colonists required to assist in provisioning & maintaining the army

·        ·        Royal officials ordered to America

·        ·        Colonial manufacturing restricted

Sugar Act - raised duty on sugar
Tightening of controls / penalties on smugglers
Currency Act 1764 - prohibited colonial governments from issuing paper money
Stamp Act 1765 - tax on most printed documents


Reapplication of Mercantilism - collecting more than 10 times the previous revenue

Colonists harbor as many grievances against one another as against London


Colonial resentment and sectionalism but after 1763, new British policies created common grievances,
Brits no longer pouring money into the colonies

Wartime boom degenerates into a peacetime bust (depression)


Colonists were accustomed and attached to self government and determined to protect those powers
Attempting to circumvent the assemblies, British government was challenging basis of colonial political power
Home rule was something old and familiar that colonists desired to keep -
a movement to conserve liberties Americans believed they already possessed

Americans uniformly opposed to the programs of PM Greenville


Stirrings of Revolt
The Stamp Act Crisis - 111

Stamp Act of 1765 - antagonized and unified the colonies - section, colony, or class
Direct attempt to raise revenue without the consent of the colonial assemblies
Patrick Henry - Virginia House of Burgesses - if present policies not revised George III might lose his head

Other of Henry’s resolutions circulated as “Virginia Resolves”
Resolution taxed only by their own representatives (failed to pass)

Massachusetts organized Intercolonial Congress 1765 - petitioned King & Parliament

·        ·        Colonies could only be taxed through their own provincial assemblies

Boston - Sons of Liberty - stamp act mobs - intimidation of those not boycotting English goods
Boycott of Sugar following Sugar Act encouraged England to repeal the Stamp Act (March 1766)


The Townshend Program - 113

Chancellor of the Exchequer - Charles Townshend - stand in prime minister
Tried to balance merchants vs. landed gentry
Massachusetts & NY withheld funding for British Army
Townshend - measures in Parliament - disbanding NY Assembly until compliant with Mutiny Act

·        ·        Townshend Duties - lead, paint, paper, and tea

Resistance to Townshend - just another tax - disbanding NY assembly a threat to all liberties
Colonists boycotted British goods subject to the Townshend Duties

Townshend died in 1767 –

·        ·        Townshend Duties, except tax on tea, repealed March 1770


The Boston Massacre - 114

Colonists harassment of Customs Officials - troops stationed in Boston
March 5, 1770,

·        ·        harassment / skirmish –

·        ·        soldiers fired into the crowd killing 5 - including Crispus Attucks

·        ·        Tragic set of circumstances turned into the "Boston Massacre" –

·        ·        British oppression and brutality

·        ·        Inaccurate and inflated reports circulated widely in the colonies

Sam Adams - political radical - proposed a "committee of correspondence" to publicize grievances

·        ·        Kept the spirit of dissent alive


The Philosophy of Revolt - 115

Ideas supporting the Revolution from many sources:
Internal - religious, political experiences

  • Written colonial charters
  • Taxed only by their own consent
  • Actual representation

External - Scots who saw English government as tyrannical

  • John Locke - what government should be
  • King & ministers exercising corrupt and autocratic authority
  • Virtual representation - some populous boroughs had no representation


Decentralization of government authority contradictory to the concept of Empire and Sovereignty
The move towards independence began with resistance, not open revolt.


John Locke
1632 - 1704

attacked the theory of divine right of kings. In brief, Locke argued that sovereignty did not reside in the state but with the people, and that the state is supreme, but only if it is bound by civil and what he called “natural” law. Many of Locke's political ideas, such as those relating to natural rights, property rights, the duty of the government to protect these rights, and the rule of the majority, were later embodied in the U.S. Constitution.   Locke further held that revolution was not only a right but often an obligation, and he advocated a system of checks and balances in government. He also believed in religious freedom and in the separation of church and state.
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.



The Tea Excitement - 116

1770s - increasingly heavy handed enforcement of Navigation Acts
Dissenting leaflets, pamphlets widely circulated
Occasional acts of rebellion
1772 Gaspee set afire - sank in Narragansett Bay –

  • defendants sent to England for trial

Tea Act of 1773 –

  • special consideration to East India Company
  • undersold American merchants
  • Tea Boycott, embraced by women
  • Philadelphia & New York prevented tea from leaving East India ships


December 16, 1773 - Boston Tea Party - others followed
Parliament Responded in 1774 - Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts

  • Closed the port of Boston
  • Reduced the powers of self government
  • Permitted Royal Officers to be tried in England or other colonies
  • Provided for the quartering of troops in colonists barns and empty houses

Quebec Act

  • Civil government
  • Ohio to Mississippi Rivers
  • Political rights to Roman Catholics and legality of Roman Catholic Church

Colonists alarmed –

  • hypothetical imposition of Anglican or RC church authority
  • tyranny of the pope
  • Martyred Massachusetts to the other colonies
  • Women’s groups united to boycott British goods all the way to the Carolinas


Cooperation and War
New Sources of Authority - 120

Passage of Authority  -

·        ·        Royal Government to colonists began on local level

·        ·        Local institutions responded, enthusiastically - seizing authority on their own

1772 - Committees of Correspondence  
1774 - Continental Congress

·        ·        Rejected a plan for colonial union under British authority

·        ·        Endorsed a statement of grievances

·        ·        Approved resolutions including defense against possible attack by British troops in Boston

·        ·        Non importation, exportation, consumption as a means of stopping all trade with Britain

·        ·        Agreed to meet again

Reaffirmed their autonomous status


Lexington and Concord - 121

General Gage –

·        ·        orders to arrest Sam Adams & John Hancock in Lexington

April 18, 1775 –

·        ·        1000 soldiers sent to Lexington & Concord

·        ·        Paul Revere's Ride with William Dawes

·        ·        Skirmish in Lexington - 8 colonial minutemen killed, 10 more wounded

·        ·        Returning from Concord, farmers in hiding harassed the British killing 24 or more

·        ·        Rebels circulated their account, captured support throughout the colonies

The war for independence had begun.

Battles of Lexington and Concord -
Link to Papa's Web Site - maintained by Pierce Evans, St. Augustine, Florida


Concord Hymn

Ralph Waldo Emerson

By the rude bridge that arched the flood.
Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood
And fired the shot heard round the world....


Paul Revere's Ride

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Listen my children and you shall hear
Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere,
On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five;
Hardly a man is now alive
Who remembers that famous day and year.

He said to his friend, "If the British march
By land or sea from the town to-night,
Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch
Of the North Church tower as a signal light,--

One if by land, and two if by sea;
And I on the opposite shore will be,
Ready to ride and spread the alarm
Through every Middlesex village and farm,
For the country folk to be up and to arm...."






Chapter 5: The American Revolution



A thorough study of Chapter Five should enable the student to understand:

1. The history debate concerning the nature of the American Revolution and the reasons for disagreement.

2. American war aims and the problems experienced by the Revolutionary governments in carrying on a protracted war.

3. The aim of the Declaration of Independence, the reasons for its issuance, and its influence throughout the world since 1776.

4. The indispensible contributions of George Washington to the successful outcome of the Revolution.

5. The diplomatic triumph for American negotiators embodied in the Treaty of Paris.

6. The types of governments created by the new states, and the important features in their governments.

7. The features of the Articles of Confederation, and the reasons for its creation.

8. The problems faced by the government under the Articles of Confederation and how they were addressed.



Main Themes

1. How the thirteen American colonies were able to win their independence from one of the most powerful nations on earth.

2. How the American Revolution was not only a war for independence, but also a struggle to determine the nature of the nation being created.

3. How Americans attempted to apply Revolutionary ideology to the building of the nation and to the remaking of society.

4. The problems that remained after, or were created by, the American Revolution.




1. confederation: A group of sovereign states that unite for specific purposes (defense, foreign policy, trade, and so on), yet otherwise act as independent bodies.

2. constitution: The fundamental laws and principles by which an organization (nation, state, and such) is governed. In America, after the Revolution had begun, the state constitutions were written so as not to rely on tradition and previous legal practices as guides for governing.

3. depression: The reverse of inflation, caused by a reduction of the money supply that retards economic activity, drives prices down, and results in business failures and unemployment.

4. inflation: The economic condition caused by an oversupply of money (generally paper) in a market undersupplied with goods to buy. The result is high prices and a corresponding reduction in the value (buying power) of money. If the inflation is prolonged, a serious disruption of the economy might occur.

5. rebellion: The rising against a power or government; organized resistance.

6. revolution: A successful rebellion, in which one form of government or one ruling group is replaced by another.



Between 1775 and 1787, Americans struggled to win a war, make a peace, and create ideologically sound, stable governments on both the state and the national levels. By the end of the era, there was little doubt that they had accomplished the first two of their goals, but serious questions were being raised concerning the success of the last. Despite problems that would have stopped lesser men, George Washington and his army had been able to successfully keep the British at bay, winning when they could and losing as seldom as possible. Meanwhile, the Continental Congress, blessed with some remarkable diplomats, maintained a foreign policy the success of which can be seen in the Franco-American alliance of 1778 and the Treaty of Paris of 1783. But once the war ended, the government that the British threat had held together found that its member states' unwillingness to centralize power created more problems than it solved. Economic dislocation, exemplified by Daniel Shays and his followers, plagued the nation, as many thoughtful men searched for a way to transform Revolutionary rhetoric into reality and to restore order without sacrificing liberty.


Two struggles began in April 1775
1. Military Conflict with Great Britain
2. Political struggle within America

·        ·        Whether to demand independence from Britain

·        ·        How to structure the new nation

o       o       Dedicated to enlightened ideals


According to the Brinkley text -
5,000 American deaths -
small by contemporary standards - brutal fighting for the day

According to "The Toll of Independence - Engagements & Battle Casuallities of the American Revolution"
The University of Chicago Press, Edited by Howard H. Peckham -

Battle Casualties


Estimate - Died in camp


Estimate of Prisoners who died


Probable deaths in service


New type of conflict - a revolutionary war for liberation
British had a vastly more powerful military


Defining American War Aims - 126

3 weeks after Lexington & Concord, Second Continental Congress meets
Agreed to support the war - disagreed as to its purpose
    Complete independence vs. reforms in the imperial relationship


Olive Branch Petition - July 1775 - conciliatory appeal to the king
Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms

  • Promise to cease hostilities if colonial demands were met
  • Response:
    • recruiting of Indians, slaves, & Hessians and Prohibitory Act –
    • closing colonial ports


January 1776 - Common Sense - Thomas Paine –

pamphleteer and propagandist - 100,000 copies

  • King and the system corrupt and to blame
  • Severe political ties owing to corrupt system & monarch & monarchy
  • England unfit to rule America

Support for independence grew


The Decision for Independence - 127

Second Continental Congress

  • Declared American ports open to all ships except Great Britain
  • Entered into communications with foreign governments
  • Recommended colonies set up independent governments
  • July 2, 1776 - adopted resolution for independence


July 4, 1776, Declaration of Independence

  • Committee consisted of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Roger Sherman and Robert B. Livingston
  • Jefferson was the principal author - Franklin added some refinements.
    • Jefferson wrote, "we hold these truths to be sacred and undeniable"
    • Franklin changed it to "self evident." (a more powerful logical argument)
  • Jefferson combined the thoughts of Locke and Aristotle
    • Locke - life, liberty, and property
    • Aristotle - the pursuit of happiness - the highest good to which we may aspire
  • George Mason of Virginia - All men are created equal


The Declaration of Independence –

  • Inspired the spirit of the French Revolution and Latin American liberation movements
  • Encouraged foreign aid for the American cause, especially from France
  • Defined the goal - independence from Britain


In the latter stages of his life, Thomas Jefferson received some criticism regarding his work as the primary author of the Declaration of Independence. Critics charged that the work was not original. Jefferson agreed and countered that indeed he had borrowed ideas, that it was not the object "to find out new principles, or new arguments, never before thought of... but intended to be an expression of the American mind, and to give that expression the proper tone and spirit." Thomas Jefferson in a letter to Henry Lee, May 8, 1825, as quoted in The Declaration of Independence: Carl L. Becker; Knopf 1922.



There are few writings that are as compact and as comprehensive as the Declaration of Independence. Fewer still have such a wide ranging impact; such as the impact of the Declaration on the political activities of South America in the years following United States independence. Finally, the Declaration possesses a unique quality shared by few documents: universality. It is a document that was true when first written. It has withstood the criticisms of countless tyrants, politicians, and literary critics. It has endured well in its 226 year history and generations yet unborn will arrive at this same conclusion.

This opinion of universality was shared by the late Carl Becker, professor of history at Cornell University, in his scholarly work, The Declaration of Independence. Professor Becker's analysis was first published in 1922, and like the Declaration, Professor Becker's work has withstood the test of time. Some years later, finding the book out of print, the publisher asked professor Becker to update the introduction to accompany a second printing. The passage quoted below speaks both to the universality of professor Becker's analysis and the truths of the Declaration of Independence as self-evident.


"The book is now republished from the original plates because Mr. Alfred Knopf, finding it out of print, was willing to take the risk involved in making it available to the public. He may have thought that just now, when political freedom, already lost in many countries, is everywhere threatened, the readers of books would be more than ordinarily interested in the political principles of the Declaration of Independence."

Carl Becker
Ithaca, New York
September 14, 1941


Responses to Independence – 127

Substantial minority loyal to the king - Loyalists – Tories

Colonies became "states" - separate and sovereign entities –

  • formed governments & state constitutions

Need for centralized authority –

  • Articles of Confederation - November 1777 –
  • weak decentralized system –
  • virtually no executive authority


Mobilizing for War – 129


  • raising & organizing an army
  • supplies & equipment
  • how to pay for it all


Gunsmiths could not meet demand for guns and ammunition –

captured British weapons when possible
Significant foreign aid from France


Financing - Continental Congress had no authority to tax - had to ask the states for money
Continental currency and state currencies –

  • paper money –
  • printed in batches
  • ===> Inflation
  • War financed by borrowing from other nations


After 1775, few volunteers for the continental army - under state control
June 1775 - George Washington Commander of the Continental Army

Winter 1777 - 78 - Valley Forge - inadequate food, shelter, & clothing
February 1778 - Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben

  • trained, disciplined, and reorganized the army
  • Also military assistance from Marquis de Lafayette of France
  • Also, Casimir Pulaski - recruited by Franklin in France, joined continental army in 1777
    • 1777 Battle of Brandywine (Pennsylvania); 1779 defended Charleston against attack, died in Savannah, 1779



The War for Independence - 131

British had

  • Navy
  • Army
  • Equipment
  • Structure

Americans had

  • familiarity & commitment
  • aid from abroad


The First Phase - New England - 132

1775 - 1776 Uncertainty on the part of the British
June 17, 1775 –

  • Battle of Bunker Hill - heaviest British casualties of the war

Siege of Boston -

  • March 17, 1776 British & loyalists leave Boston for Nova Scotia
    • Tactical vs. strategic retreat

February 27, 1776 - Moore's Creek Bridge, N.C.,

  • patriots defeat loyalists uprising –
  • bad sign for British

Canada to retain its relationship to the British crown

The Second Phase - The Mid-Atlantic Region – 133

1776 - 1778 –

Conventional war - British superiority –

American's overmatched - British blunders

Wm Howe - 32,000 troops with equipment –

Washington 19,000 ill-trained, ill-equipped patriots, no navy

1776 - defeated and dispersed Washington's army to the countryside

  • Christmas - Washington Crosses the Delaware –
  • surprises British - short lived victory
  • Retired for the winter - Morristown, NJ


1777 –

Burgoyne defeated at Oriskany, NY and Bennington, Vt. –

  • surrendered 5000 men to Americans at Saratoga, NY –
  • major turning point
  • Led to alliance with France



Howe (Duh) –

  • Abandoned his own strategic initiative –
  • left Burgoyne out to dry - and lose
  • Failed to apply coup de gras to Washington in battle and in Valley Forge (winter 77-78)



The Iroquois and the British - 136

Iroquois leaders hoping for a British victory to stem tide of movement onto tribal lands
Officially neutral - but split:

  • Mohawks, Seneca, & Cayuga tribes joined the British –
  • Oneida, Tuscarora backed Americans,
  • Onondaga split –
  • Iroquois Confederacy in disarray


Securing Aid from Abroad - 136

Foreign support essential –

  • Political
  • Diplomatic
  • Economic

Emissaries dispatched prior to Declaration of Independence - seeking trade

France eager to see Britain lose part of its empire

France provides supplies
Held back on diplomatic recognition
Following Saratoga -

  • French recognition of US as a sovereign nation
  • Greatly expanded assistance
  • Money and munitions
  • Navy and expeditionary force



The Final Phase: The South - 137

Attempt to undermine the revolution by seeking out loyalists
Badly overestimated loyalist support - loyalists feared reprisals
Guerrilla warfare - patriots moved & lived among the population

  • Involved locals - like it or not

British successes at Savannah & Charleston

American victory at

  • King's Mountain (NC / SC)
  • Guilford Court House NC - Cornwallis abandons Carolina campaign
  • Cornwallis retreated to Yorktown to await ships & supplies
    • Blockaded by French ships & French / American army
    • Oct. 17, 1781 - Cornwallis surrenders




Lyrics - The World Turn'd Upside Down
Courtesy: John Renfro Davis

Tradition has it that when Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown (1781) the British played "The World Turn'd Upside Down." There is some debate as to whether that is myth or fact.


If buttercups buzz'd after the bee,
If boats were on land, churches on sea,
If ponies rode men and if grass ate the cows,
And cats should be chased into holes by the mouse,
If the mamas sold their babies
To the gypsies for half a crown;
If summer were spring and the other way round,
Then all the world would be upside down.


Winning the Peace - 140

Cornwallis's defeat provoked antiwar sentiment in England
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, & John Jay to Paris for talks with British

  • (Act independently of instructions based on their judgment)

Preliminary treaty - November 30, 1782
September 3, 1783 - Treaty of Paris

  • Recognition of United States of America
  • Canada to Florida, Atlantic to Mississippi
  • Fall of 1783 - British Depart - Washington enters NYC


War and Society - 141

Was the revolution social, political, economic?

Home Rule or Who Rules at Home?


Loyalists and Minorities - 142

Losers: British and Loyalists (and Indians)

  • Loyalists 25% - 33% of the population
  • Up to 100,000 fled - England or Canada
  • Those who stayed often lost influence / influential positions / power

Some increase in the distribution of wealth but wealthy patriots remained wealthy


  • Anglicans: - loss of governmental support for the church - foreign and domestic
    • Disestablished the church - separated from government
    • Anglican church survived but significantly and permanently weakened in power / prestige
  • Quakers: - unpopular because of their pacifism - never regained popularity
  • Catholics: -
  • winners –
    • supported the revolution
    • French Catholic troops & chaplains welcomed
    • Hostilities eroded,
    • Vatican assigns US its own Catholic hierarchy (independent of England)
    • (no Catholic presidential candidate until 1928, Al Smith; no president until 1960, JFK)



The War and Slavery - 142
Some slaves liberated by the British during the revolution - attempt at social disruption
Revolutionary sentiment more restrained in slave states - fear of slave rebellions
Southern churches developed a rationale for slavery
The American Revolution was fighting to secure freedom for some and preserve slavery for others


Native Americans and the Revolution -143

British were the lesser of two evils
Increased demand for Indian (western) lands
Resentment of Indian support for British during the war
Paternalistic - "noble savages" uncivilized but redeemable
Divisions within Indian culture - no cohesive organization

Battles continued - severe retribution for raids

  • Like it or not - successfully implemented the desired result



Women's Rights and Womens's Roles - 144

War activities left wives, mothers, sisters and daughters in charge of farms & businesses

(Lysistrata - by Aristophanes, first produced in 411 B.C., this is a timely comedy from the ancient world. Under the leadership of a determined Athenian, Lysistrata, the women of the warring city-states of Greece unite in refusing their husbands all sexual favors until they agree to bring peace to the land. Both men and women find the sex strike a painful sacrifice, and eventually the women's resolve forces the men to realize that the glories of battle are much easier to foreswear than the joys of intimacy.)

Some women had no significant source of income or wealth
Protests against prices; looting for food, forced to quarter soldiers
Many "camp followers" followed their husbands in battle –

  • Martha Washington at Valley Forge
  • Increased morale, cooking, laundry, nursing

Post revolution ideas of liberty - Abigail Adams
Mary Wollstonecraft - English Feminist –

  • Vindication of the Rights of Women

Few legal or social reforms –

  • confirmed and strengthened the patriarchal structure


The War Economy - 146

American Trade was also, after a century, independent of Britain
No protection from British navy - British ports hostile to Americans
Americans resorted to faster, more maneuverable ships
Caribbean and South American markets - Asia - world trade
Increased trade among American states
Mini industrialization - "homespun" guns, ammunition


The Creation of State Governments - 147

Fear of executive power
Instability of government - too responsive to the popular will
Need for balance in government


The Assumptions of Republicanism - 147

Republic - Latin - res publica, literally “the public thing”, form of state based on the concept that sovereignty resides in the people, who delegate the power to rule in their behalf to elected representatives and officials.(1) Also, noted by a non-hereditary executive / leader.

Power comes from the people –

  • large numbers of property owners, not an aristocracy

All men are created equal –

  • in contrast to an aristocracy – meritocracy
  • Not equality of condition, but equality of opportunity

Reality: not everyone held property, early on, not even a majority.

Women excluded, slaves excluded.

Plutocracy – rule by the wealthy


The First State Constitutions - 147

Connecticut & Rhode Island –

  • deleted the King from their charters and adopted as constitutions

Constitutions were to be written –

  • English constitution is laws, custom, tradition
  • Power of the executive needed to be limited
  • Executive banned from holding legislative office –
  • Separation of powers
  • Judiciary independent from the executive

Property requirements - universal suffrage - even among white men - not fully accepted


Revising State Governments – 148

Early on, constitutions written by state legislatures

  • favored legislatures
  • too easily amended

Revised - Constitutional conventions –

  • more permanent constitutions
  • less conflict of interest

Amendment criteria –

  • protected from public & legislative whims

Strengthening of executive –

  • directly elected by the people,
  • not dependent upon legislature
  • Powers of appointment and veto power



Toleration and Slavery – 148

Separation of church and state –

  • Church of England disestablished –
  • no governmental support of a church


Pennsylvania (gradual emancipation) 1783

Massachusetts Supreme Court 1783 –

  • not permitted under state's bill of rights

Every state EXCEPT S. Carolina & Georgia

  • prohibited importation of slaves from abroad

Virginia passed a law encouraging manumission - the freeing of slaves

Slavery survived in all southern and border states

  • Racist assumptions
  • Economic investment in slaves
  • Lack of commitment to any alternative
  • Southern view required a large servile labor force (in contrast to republicanism)



The Search for a National Government - 149

Initial belief: weak central government as a loose coordinating mechanism; Each state a sovereign nation
From this concept emerged the Articles of Confederation


The Confederation - 149

November 1777 - Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation Included

Articles of Confederation did NOT include

Congress survived as a national authority

No executive (president)

Conduct Wars

Could not draft troops

Foreign relations

Could not regulate trade

Appropriate, borrow, and issue money

Could not levy taxes - had to request from state legislatures which could, and often did, refuse requests

One vote per state

Consideration for population

9 of 13 votes to pass important legislation


Unanimous approval for ratification or amendment



Diplomatic Failures – 149

British did not fully honor their agreements

  • military posts on western borders
  • restitution for manumission

Florida (Spanish) border disputes
Access to British markets
U.S. Ambassadors - speaking for 1 or for 13 sovereign nations?


The Confederation and the Northwest - 150

Ordinance of 1784

Western lands into 10 self-governing districts

  • could petition for statehood

Ordinance of 1785

  • System of Surveying & selling
  • North of the Ohio River - rectangular townships (grid system)

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

  • Abandoned 10 districts
  • created 1 Northwest Territory for subsequent division
  • 60,000 population as precondition for statehood
  • Guaranteed freedom of religion & trial by jury
  • Prohibited Slavery



Indians and the Western Lands - 154

Lands of the Northwest were occupied Indian lands
Various battles continued until the early 1800s in Ohio

Debts, Taxes, and Daniel Shays – 154

Rapid outflow of hard currency following the revolution

Demand for foreign goods

Confederation had outstanding debt to nations and soldiers

Congress received only 1/6 of the money it requested from the states

Committed nationalists wanted to increase the power of the central government –

  • permit it to meet its financial obligations
  • Robert Morris, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison

Burden fell back to the states who taxed farmers and other property holders

  • Resistance and riots in opposition to financial policy

1786 Shays Rebellion

  • Demand for paper money, tax relief, moratorium on debts, movement of Massachusetts capital to interior
  • abolition of imprisonment for debt
  • January 1787, merchants assembled their own army, defeated Shays


Highlighted the need for improved economic policy and a national constitution

Chapter 6: The Constitution and The New Republic



A thorough study of Chapter Six should enable the student to understand:

1. The groups that advocated a stronger national government and how they, probably a minority, were able to achieve their objective.

2. The origin of the Constitutional Convention, who the delegates were, how well they represented the people, and how they were able to achieve a consensus.

3. The historical debate concerning the motives of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention.

4. Federalism and how the Constitution is designed to make it work.

5. The importance of The Federal Papers in the ratification struggle, and their significance in the years since.

6. The effectiveness of George Washington's solutions to the problems of the presidency, and how Washington, as its first occupant, affected the office and the nation.

7. The financial program of Alexander Hamilton, and its contribution to the success of the new government.

8. The ways in which the weak new nation coped with international problems, and the importance of such events as Washington's decision for neutrality and the "quasi-war" with France.

9. The emergence of political parties, their political philosophies, and their influence through the election of 1800.


Main Themes

1. How and why the Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation.

2. How differing views of what the nation should become led to the rise of America's first political parties.

3. The way in which the new United States was able to establish itself as a nation in the eyes of foreign powers and of its own people.

4. The rise and fall of the Federalist Party.



1. federalism: A system of government in which powers are divided between a central government and local governments, giving each authority in its own sphere. The extent of and the limitations on this authority are defined in a constitution, which in the United States, also reserves certain powers to the people. It was such a system that many argued existed under the British Empire, whereas others insisted that a true "federal" system existed under the Articles. This latter group further argued that the Constitution of 1787 put too much power in the hands of the central government and hence created a national rather than a federal government.

2. implied powers: Powers that are not clearly defined in the Constitution, but, by implication, are granted to the government. Those who believe in the existence of such powers favor a "loose" interpretation of the Constitution, whereas those who hold that the Constitution authorizes nothing that is not spelled out specifically follow a "strict" interpretation.

3. implied powers doctrine: The idea put forth by Hamilton in his argument in favor of the Bank, which held that the government has powers other than those enumerated in the Constitution. These "implied powers" rise from the government's right to select the means to exercise the powers given it and from the "necessary and proper" clause of the Constitution. Later this was stated even more directly by Chief Justice John Marshall: "Let the end . . . be within the scope of the constitution and all means which [are] appropriate . . . which are not prohibited . . . are constitutional."

4. national bank: A private (as opposed to government) institution into which government revenue is deposited. This bank issues currency, grants loans, and generally encourages commercial activity while stabilizing the economy.

5. national system: A system of government (as opposed to a federal system) in which the central government is supreme and the local units (states) surrender most of their sovereignty to it.

6. protective tariff: A tax on goods that are brought into the country and compete with that country's own products. It is designed to drive up the cost of foreign goods and protect native manufacturers from disruptive competition.

7. separation of powers: The division of governmental power among the various branches (legislative, executive, judicial) to prevent one branch from dominating the government.

8. tariff: A tax on goods imported or exported by a country; in the United States, a tax on imported goods.



The period between 1785 and 1800 was one of the most politically productive in American history. During these fifteen years, the nation, guided by some of the most talented men in history, reorganized itself under a new framework of government and then struggled to define (for itself as well as for others) just what had been created. It was a period marked by the rise of a party that called itself Federalist, although the philosophy it espoused was, as its opponents were quick to point out, more "nationalist" in emphasis. Arguing that to prosper, the United States had best follow the economic and political example of Great Britain, these Federalists, led by Hamilton, interjected foreign policy into domestic differences and set the stage for one of the earliest and most serious government assaults on individual civil liberties. Seeing their less elitist, pro-agriculture, Republican opponents as supporters of France in an undeclared conflict between that nation and the United States, the Federalists set out to suppress dissent and those who promoted it. This assault brought a swift response and so heightened tensions that many feared that the nation could not survive. It was against this background that a shift of power occurred, and by the end of the decade, the Federalists, who had been the moving force for so many years, were clearly losing ground to the Republicans. This meant that if wounds were to be healed and divisions mended, it would have to be done by the man many believed to be the personification of all that separated the two groups--Thomas Jefferson.

Chapter 6

The Constitution and the New Republic - 159


Failures of the Articles of Confederation:

  • economic instability
  • taxation
  • defense,
  • diplomacy

Congress nearly lacked a quorum to ratify the Treaty of Paris –

  • ending the Revolutionary War

Only 18 members representing 8 states voted on the Northwest Ordinance

1787 New Constitution –

  • Fundamental Law –
  • from which all public policies, political principles, and solutions of controversies must spring.



Framing a New Government - Advocates of Centralization – 160

  • Wealthy and influential wanted more attention to economic management
  • Veterans wanted their pensions
  • Elimination / standardization of interstate tariffs & duties
  • Standardize 13 commercial policies
  • Indian Policy
  • Stop states from printing paper money (without specie)
  • Lenders to the government wanted their investment protected



Alexander Hamilton (first secretary of the treasury)
Wanted a constitutional convention

  • Overhaul / replace the Articles of Confederation
  • Allies included John Jay and James Madison age 36
    • (Madison - intellectual leader of the Constitutional Convention)
    • (Madison, Jay, & Hamilton – write Federalist Papers - Publius)
      1. In an effort to convince delegates from the key state of New York to vote for ratification of the Constitution, Jay collaborated with James Madison and Alexander Hamilton on writing a series of eighty-five essays that explained and defended the Constitution. The essays, collectively called the Federalist Papers, were written in the form of anonymous letters to New York newspapers and are considered the authoritative commentary on the Constitution.
  • George Washington's support was crucial for credibility



A Divided Convention - 162

May - September 1787

  • 55 men - the Founding Fathers all states except RI
  • Average age 44 - Benjamin Franklin at 81 the lone elder
  • Most men of property and influence
  • Unanimously chose Washington to preside over the convention
  • Closed sessions to public & press
  • Each state would have 1 vote
  • Madison's initial plan became the topic of debate / discussion
    • Madison's constitution (The Virginia Plan) remained the basis for discussions
    • Separation of Powers (Locke);
    • House (elected by people) & Senate (elected by state legislatures)
  • Were slaves to be counted for representation or were they property?
    • SC wanted slaves to be counted as people for representation and, if taxed based on population, count slaves as property for that purpose
  • Northern states wanted slaves taxed but not represented
  • No one considered slave citizenship of enfranchisement


Compromise - 162

  • Franklin encouraged the bickering delegates to persist in discussions
    July 2, 1787, a Grand Committee to resolve differences
  • Franklin as chairman, 1 representative from each state

The Great Compromise

  • House - represented by population; slaves count as 3/5th of a person
  • Senate - two representatives per state
  • Accepted on July 16, 1787

Second Compromise - in response to southern concerns

  • Congress not permitted to tax exports (cotton)
  • Duty not to exceed $10 per imported slave
  • Slavery importation unimpeded for 20 years (1808)

Agreed to with reservations - without it, the Constitution would fail

  • Absence of
    • a definition of citizenship (14th Amendment 1868)
    • List of individual rights (1st - 10th Amendments - Bill of Rights 1791)


The Constitution of 1787 - 163

James Madison intellectual leader

  • political thinker
  • "Father of the Constitution" (Virginia Plan)

Ultimate sovereignty flows from the people - We the People of the United States...

The Constitution and the government it created were to be the "supreme law" of the land

  • no state would have the authority to defy it
  • Federal powers included:
    • Tax
    • regulate commerce
    • control currency
    • pass laws "necessary and proper"
  • Constitution recognizes existence of separate states and left powers to them.
    • Federal government has Enumerated Powers
    • States have Reserved Powers (see 10th amendment)
  • Federal structure and checks and balances
    • protects against despotism and
    • tyranny of the people.
  • September 17, 1787, signed by 39 delegates.



Federalists and Anti-Federalists - 166

Articles of Confederation required unanimous approval for amending government - not likely
Constitutional Convention changed the rules - 9 of 13 would secure ratification


Supporters - better organized, included Franklin & Washington
Washington declared the choice was between the Constitution and disunion
Self described - Federalists
Federalist Papers - Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay (Publius)
Anti-Federalists –

  • opposed central government
  • potential tyranny
  • taxes
  • power over states
  • no Bill of Rights

Federalists feared

  • Disorder, Anarchy, Chaos, unchecked power of the masses

Anti-Federalists feared

  • the government more than the people, concentrated power

Ratification in June 1788



Completing the Structure - 167

George Washington unanimously chosen president by electors

  • inaugurated April 30, 1789 in NYC

First Congress proposed a Bill of Rights

  • approved by the states in 1791

Judiciary Act of 1789

  • 6 Supreme court Justices
  • 1 chief, 5 associates
  • 13 District courts
  • 3 circuit courts of appeal

Executive Departments –

  • State (Jefferson)
  • Treasury(Hamilton)
  • War(Knox)
  • Attorney General (Randolf)
  • Postmaster General

Federalists and Republicans - 168

Centralists - Federalists - Alexander Hamilton
Opponents - Republicans - Thomas Jefferson & James Madison


Hamilton and the Federalists - 168

Washington was a Federalist - centralist –

  • preferred to stay above the political fray
  • Believed the presidency should remain non-political

Alexander Hamilton

  • Aristocrat - stable effective government required an enlightened ruling class
  • Thus, effective government required buy in from the wealthy, powerful
  • elites need to have a stake in the success of the government

·  Government should take on the public debt - national and state

·  Government should call in all debt certificates and issue uniform, interest bearing bonds payable on specific dates - aka, funding the debt

·  All bondholders would look to the federal government for repayment

·  Hamilton did not intend to pay off the debt - wanted a permanent national debt

·  Wealthy creditors - permanent stake in seeing the government survive

Hamilton proposed a national bank

·        ·        Provide loans and currency to businesses

·        ·        Place to deposit federal funds

·        ·        Collect taxes and distribute expenditures

·        ·        Control bond prices by judicious buying of bonds

·        ·        Chartered by the federal government

·        ·        Monopoly on the governments own banking business


Federalists Program

·        ·        More than stabilization

·        ·        Nation of wealthy, enlightened ruling class

·        ·        Vigorous independent commercial economy

·        ·        Thriving industrial sector

·        ·        Capable of participating in world economic affairs



Enacting the Federalist Program – 169

Resistance to national bank

Political deal for Virginia's support

·        ·        move the capital from Philadelphia to the south

·        ·        Quid pro quo - Virginia supported the proposal

Bank of the United States began operations in 1791

·        ·        20 year charter


The Republican Opposition - 170

Framers (not farmers) believed organized political parties were dangerous and should be avoided
Opposition to Federalists using power to control appointments & rewards
In response to Federalist behavior

·        ·        Republican party formed (not the current Republican party)

·        ·        Jefferson & Madison prominent figures

·        ·        Jefferson believe in an agrarian republic, most of whose citizens would be sturdy, independent farmer citizens tilling their own soil

·        ·        decentralized society

·        ·        (Jefferson had 200 slaves working the fields of Montcello)



Establishing National Sovereignty - 171

Federalists gained public support through management of western lands and international diplomacy


Securing the Frontier - 172

·        ·        1794 Whiskey Rebellion

o       o       Refusal to pay excise tax

o       o       terrorizing tax collectors

§         §         Overwhelming federal force

§         §         15,000 troops

§         §         larger than Revolution Army, led by Washington

§         §         Federal government gained respect

Won loyalties of new territories accepting them as states

·        ·        Vermont, 1791

·        ·        Kentucky, 1792

·        ·        Tennessee first a territory then 1796 a state


Native Americans and the New Nation - 172

Series of border conflicts with Indian tribes

Constitution did not resolve place of the Indian nations

·        ·        Article I: Indians not taxed

·        ·        Regulate commerce with foreign nations and with the Indian tribes

o       o       Not foreign nations

o       o       not citizens

o       o       no direct representation

o       o       did not directly address land management


Maintaining Neutrality – 173

Difficulty maintaining neutrality during 1789 war between France & Britain

Britain seizing American ships engaged in trade with French West Indies


Jay's Treaty & Pickney's Treaty – 173

John Jay - dispatched to England to

·        ·        secure compensation for American shipping

·        ·        withdrawal of British form frontier posts

·        ·        negotiate a commercial relationship with Britain

Didn’t achieve all objectives but…

·        ·        Prevented war

·        ·        Recognized undisputed American sovereignty over the Northwest

·        ·        Established commercial relationship with Britain

·        ·        Raised fears in Spain the Britain and America might join against Spanish

Pickney's Treaty (with Spain)

·        ·        1795 - Spain recognized right of America to navigate the Mississippi

·        ·        Could deposit cargo at New Orleans

·        ·        Florida boundary fixed at 31st parallel

·        ·        Spanish to prevent Indian raids launched from Florida


The Downfall of the Federalists - 174

After 1796, the Federalists never won another election

·        ·        Institutions survived, but they were gone


The Election of 1796 – 174

Washington insisted on retiring from office

Jefferson uncontested candidate of the Republicans in 1796

John Adams, VP, Federalist candidate

Adams won the presidency, Jefferson with 2nd most votes, VP (changed by 12th amendment 1804)

Hamilton remained the dominant Federalist

Adams was a brilliant statesman; a less skilled politician


The Quasi War with France -175

French vessels captured American ships at sea

Hamilton recommended a negotiated settlement

Charles Pinckeny, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry to France

French officials demand a loan & bribe

·        ·        French identified only as X, Y, & Z

·        ·        Hence, XYZ Affair

·        ·        Adams persuaded Congress to cut off trade with France,

·        ·        Capture French vessels

·        ·        1798, create Department of the Navy

·        ·        1800 France chose to settle


Repression and Protest - 176

Federalists increased majority in Congress - midterm elections of 1798


Alien and Sedition Acts

·        ·        More difficult to become a citizen

·        ·        10 newspaper editors arrested for criticism of Federalists

·        ·        Kentucky and Virginia "nullified" the law based on Congress exceeding its enumerated powers



The "Revolution" of 1800 - 177

Adams vs. Jefferson


·        ·        accused of being radical

·        ·        bring terror of French Revolution if elected


·        ·        portrayed as tyrant conspiring to become king

Jefferson's relationship with Sally Hemings introduced


Aaron Burr organized Tammany in NYC –

·        ·        Republicans carried the city & state


Each elector to vote for 2 persons

·        ·        Plan, one elector does not vote for VP candidate, thereby Presidential candidate (Jefferson) ends up with one more vote than VP candidate (Burr)

·        ·        didn't happen - tie vote.

Election decided by House of Representatives (Federalist)

On 36th ballot, Jefferson was elected

Adams and Federalist congress increased federal judgeships and packed appointments









Chapter 7: The Jeffersonian Era



A thorough study of Chapter Seven should enable the student to understand:

1. Thomas Jefferson's views on education and the role of education in the concept of a "virtuous and enlightened citizenry."

2. The indications of American cultural nationalism that were beginning to emerge during the first two decades of the nineteenth century.

3. The effects of the Revolutionary era on religion, and the changing religious patterns that helped bring on the Second Great Awakening.

4. The evidence noticeable in the first two decades that the nation was not destined to remain the simple, agrarian republic envisioned by the Jeffersonians.

5. The political philosophy of Jefferson, and the extent to which he was able to adhere to his philosophy while president.

6. The Jeffersonian-Federalist struggle over the judiciary--its causes, the main points of conflict, and the importance of the outcome for the future of the nation.

7. President Jefferson's constitutional reservations concerning the Louisiana Purchase, and the significance of his decision to accept the bargain.

8. The reasons for President Jefferson's sponsorship of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the importance of that exploration.

9. The many problems involved in attempting to achieve an understanding of Aaron Burr and his "conspiracy."

10. What Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were attempting to accomplish by "peaceable coercion," and why their efforts were not successful.

11. The numerous explanations of the causes of the War of 1812, and why there is so much disagreement among historians.

12. The problems caused by Tecumseh's attempts at confederation and by the Spanish presence in Florida as Americans surged westward.

13. The state of the nation in 1812, and how the Madison administration waged war against the world's foremost naval power.

14. The extent of the opposition to the American war effort, and the ways in which the New England Federalists attempted to show their objections.

15. The ways in which the skill of the American peace commissioners and the international problems faced by England contributed to a satisfactory--for Americans--peace settlement.

16. The effects of the War of 1812 on banking, shipping, farming, industry, and transportation.



Main Themes

1. How Americans expressed their cultural independence.

2. The impact of industrialism on the United States and its people.

3. The role that Thomas Jefferson played in shaping the American character.

4. How the American people and their political system responded to the nation's physical expansion.

5. How American ambitions and attitudes came into conflict with British policies and led to the War of 1812.

6. How Americans were able to "win" the war, and the peace that followed.




1. embargo: An act that prohibits ships from entering or leaving a nation's ports.

2. impeachment: The bringing of charges against a governmental official by the House of Representatives. Removal from office cannot come from impeachment alone. A trial must be held in the Senate, and on conviction there, the offender may be removed from his or her post.

3. Jeffersonian democracy: Not actually a democrat, in the classic sense of the word, Jefferson believed that the masses were capable of selecting their own representatives and, if properly educated and informed, would select the best and the wisest to govern. Once these were chosen, however, this "natural aristocracy" should be allowed to govern without interference from those who selected them. Only when they stood again for election would these representatives be called on to explain their actions.

4. judicial review: The power of a court to review a law, compare it with the Constitution, and rule on whether it does or does not conform to the principles of the Constitution--whether it is constitutional or unconstitutional.

5. patronage: The control of political appointments assumed by the victors in an election--the "spoils" of victory, which the victors hand out as rewards to their followers; hence the practice became known as the "spoils system."




The period just covered was marked by definition and expansion. Having achieved political independence, Americans struggled to achieve cultural independence as well, and this search for self-identity touched almost every phase of the nation's life. "American" tastes in music, literature, and art developed, encouraged by a growing recognition that we were different from other countries and that the difference was worth calling attention. Religious bodies with ties to the old, colonial ways declined as the Second Great Awakening swept America; technology, unrestrained by mercantile rules and regulations, expanded to solve problems that were particularly American; American politics began to take on characteristics and respond to needs that found little precedent in European systems. At the center of this activity, at times leading it and at times being led, was Thomas Jefferson, a president whose versatility seemed to mirror the diversity of the nation. An aristocrat with democratic sentiments, a strict constructionist who bought half a continent, Jefferson was as contradictory as the American people; but like those people, his ultimate goal was the freedom of individuals to pursue their interests, to expand their talents to the fullest. In that sense, Jefferson, although a pragmatic politician, was also a committed idealist--one who deserves to be the symbol of the age that bears his name. The War of 1812 did more than test the army and navy of the United States--it tested the nation's ability to survive deep internal divisions that threatened America's independence as surely as did the forces of Great Britain. Hoping to keep his nation out of war, Jefferson followed a policy that kept the peace but raised fears among his political enemies. Those opponents, their power and influence declining, saw the government's policies as much directed against themselves as the British and opposed the conflict. Most other Americans rallied to Jefferson and to his successor, James Madison. The consensus Jefferson had forged held, and the United States survived this test.

1. Thomas Jefferson's views on education and the role of education in the concept of a "virtuous and enlightened citizenry."


The Jeffersonian Era - 181



  • society of sturdy, independent farmers,
  • free from the workshops of industrial towns and city mobs of Europe.
  • Universal education (male citizens)  scientific rationalism of the Enlightenment.
  • Localism and republican simplicity
  • Federal government of sharply limited power – authority at the state level
  • Almost nothing worked out as planned


Economy became more diversified and complex

The country was growing

Industrialism supplanted simple agrarian lifestyle

Education remained with the privileged class

Popular nationalism

Religious revivalism vs. rationalism


Dismantled some Federalist bureaucracy but assumed new arbitrary federal powers

They did have a sense of adjusting to changing realities.



2. The indications of American cultural nationalism that were beginning to emerge during the first two decades of the nineteenth century.


The Rise of Cultural Nationalism - 182

Patterns of Education - 182


Central to Republican vision – a virtuous and enlightened citizenry

Jefferson: a national crusade against ignorance

Nationwide system of public schools – male citizens – perspective voters


1815 – no state had a comprehensive public school system


Schooling the province of private institutions – those who could afford to pay

  • South / MidAtlantic – religious groups ran most of the schools;
  • New England mostly secular
  • Aristocratic in outlook
  • Few schools for the poor, insufficient capacity, inferior quality
  • Most schools accepted only male students


If mothers remained ignorant, how could they raise their children to be enlightened?

Some schools began accepting female students, but mostly for domestic training.


1784 – Judith Sargent Murray publishes an essay defending women’s right to education

Inspiring but little impact for another 70 years.


Indian education proposed to tame and uplift the noble savages

No whites believed in a need to educate African Americans


Minimal education for blacks in the north; in the south, prevention of black education

·        ·        Fearful of inspiring black uprisings


Fewer opportunities for higher education

·        ·        1 in 1000 – white males only, no women, no blacks, no Indians

·        ·        Prosperous, propertied families only

·        ·        Education limited to narrow training in the classics and intensive work in theology


Medicine and Science - 183


University of Pennsylvania 1st medical school in early 1800s

  • Age old prejudices prevented exploitation of scientific methodologies
  • Anatomy studies compromised – public opposed to dissection of cadavers
  • Slow to respond to simple sanitation practices
  • Bleeding was a “modern scientific” procedure – probably killed George Washington
  • Physicians replaced midwives as childbirth agents


Education remained a largely unfilled goal but would survive for future generations.


Cultural Aspirations in the New Nation - 184


1784 – Jedidiah Morse – Geography Made Easy…

          country must have its own textbooks to prevent aristocratic ideas of England


Noah Webster –

  • students be educated as patriots, minds filled with nationalistic American thoughts
  • dictionary of Americanized version of spelling – honor vs. honour


Printers preferred to publish English works – no royalties

American writers had to absorb cost of publication – high cost / risk


Washington Irving – folk tales –

  • Ichabod Crane,
  • Legend of Sleepy Hollow,
  • Rip Van Winkle


Mercy Otis Warren – female, History of the Revolution

Mason Weems – Life of Washington – historically inaccurate – Cheery Tree fable

Literature and History creatively intertwined to promote nationalism



3. The effects of the Revolutionary era on religion, and the changing religious patterns that helped bring on the Second Great Awakening.


Religious Skepticism - 185


Religions traditions challenged – churches separated from state support

Individual liberty promoted


Deism embraced by some, including Franklin & Jefferson

Thomas Paine – Age of Reason – Christianity strangest religion ever set up

Universalism Unitarianism

  • Rejected Calvinist belief in pre-destination
  • Salvation available to all
  • Rejected the idea of the trinity / divinity of Christ


Traditional religious beliefs prevailed –

Commitment to organized churches and denominations declined


The Second Great Awakening - 186


1790s – several denominations participating in evangelizations

Methodism – John Wesley in England, Francis Asbury in USA

  • Authoritarian and hierarchical in structure –
  • fastest growing
  • Popular in the south

1800 – Presbyterians at Yale

Growth in Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches

Camp meetings –

  • harvest new members
  • Must accept traditional teachings – reject rationalism
  • A person could affect their own destiny


Promoted growth of different sects and denominations more so than established religions


Preponderance of women – female converts outnumbered males

Fulfilled a social role for women –

  • men moved west,
  • home industry declining in favor of impersonal factory work,
  • religion became a social outlet


Black preachers became important figures in the slave community

  • Salvation in this world and the next…
  • Revivalism stirred racial unrest in the south


4. The evidence noticeable in the first two decades that the nation was not destined to remain the simple, agrarian republic envisioned by the Jeffersonians.



Stirrings of Industrialism - 188


Rather than remaining rural agrarian, the transformation had begun towards urban, industrial society


The Industrial Revolution in England


Well underway by 1800

Profound social and economic consequences

Factory system took root in manufacture of cotton thread and cloth


1769 James Watt’s advanced steam engine

Emergence of steam power


Social change

  • Rural to urban migration
  • Cottage industry to factory industry
  • Relatively higher standard of living for factory workers vs. rural poor
  • Psychological costs – fundamentally different lifestyle / lost social structure
  • Disciplined fixed work schedule vs. seasonal rural occupations
  • Factory owners – new aristocratic class – absent and impersonal
  • Workers beginning to see themselves as a distinct class


Technology in America - 188


No large scale Industrial Revolution thru 1820

British industrialization viewed with ambivalence

However, technological advances were being introduced – the beginnings

Britain prevented export of technology –

Immigrants arrived with technological knowledge


Americans produced their own technological advances

Flour milling machinery

Ely Whitney

  • Cotton Gin (Cotton en-Gin-e)
    • Separating seeds from the cotton fiber – 10 to 20 times more efficient
    • Cotton production increased 8 fold – increased demand for slaves
  • Gun automation
    • Devised a machine to permit the mass production of guns
    • Technology adopted by other industries –
    • Sewing machines, clocks, etc.


1820s & 1830s – Textile industry developed in northern states / New England

Root of northern preeminence in manufacturing

North became more industrial – south remained bound to agriculture

  • An issue that would serve as a catalyst and influence the results of the Civil War


1840 – increased progress toward the American Industrial revolution and manufacturing economy


Transportation Innovations - 190


Prerequisites to industrialization is a transportation system for raw materials and finished goods


1789 – Tariff laws giving preference to American ships in American ports

1790s – war in Europe – boon to American shipping

Significant shipping growth between 1789 and 1810 – 8 fold increase


Development of domestic markets thru improving domestic transportation

River transportation – steamboat

1787 – high pressure steam engine – lighter, more efficient

  • powered boats and eventually locomotives and mill machinery
  • Steamboats on the Hudson, Mississippi, and Ohio rivers

Some early roads – turnpikes – private ventures

  • Limited to flat terrain, populated areas – for profit


The Rising Cities - 193


1800 –

  • primarily rural agrarian
  • only 3% of non-Indian population lived in towns of more than 8000
  • 10% lived west of the Appalachian Mountains


Urban Life

  • Philadelphia 70000
  • New York 60000
  • Baltimore 26000
  • Boston 24000
  • Charleston 20000
  • Urban life produce affluence, amenities


5. The political philosophy of Jefferson, and the extent to which he was able to adhere to his philosophy while president.


Jefferson the President - 194


  • Conciliatory attitude towards Federalists
  • Remarkable expansion of territory – Louisiana Purchase
  • Some limiting / reduction of Federalist national institutions
  • Courts continued to assert federal power under John Marshall


The Federal City and the “People’s President” - 195


  • New national capital
  • 1800 only 3200 residents
  • Climate inhospitable – wet, cold winters, hot humid summers
  • Little infrastructure improvements


President and Party Leader


  • Acted in the spirit of democratic simplicity
  • Walked to and from his inauguration
  • No White House social formality
  • Ineffective public speaker
  • Brilliant and charming conversationalist
  • Writer of great literary skills
  • Intelligent and creative –
  • Politics, diplomacy, architect, educator, inventor, scientific farmer, philosopher, scientist
  • Pastimes included sorting bones of prehistoric animals, building a private library that later became the basis for the Library of Congress

The president and Mrs. Kennedy attempted to make the White House the cultural center of the nation. Writers, artists, poets, scientists, and musicians were frequent dinner guests. On one occasion the Kennedys held a reception for all the American winners of the Nobel Prize, people who made outstanding contributions to their field during the past year. At the party the president suggested that more talent and genius was at the White House that night than there had been since Thomas Jefferson had last dined there alone.

Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

  • Tried to eliminate the aura of majesty surrounding the presidency
  • State of the Union submitted in writing
  • Alternately, provided leadership and pressure to Republican congressmen
  • Secretary of the Treasury – opposed to Hamilton’s policies
  • Used powers of appointment to political advantage


Won re-election in 1804 by a landslide


Dollars and Ships - 198


  • 1802 – persuaded Congress to abolish all internal taxes
  • Leaving only customs duties and sale of western land as revenue
  • Reduced government spending
  • Reduced national debt by 50%
  • Scaled down the armed forces
  • Army from 4000 to 2500
  • Navy from 25 to 7 ships


  • Helped establish US Military Academy at West Point
  • When trouble began overseas, began again to build up the fleet
  • Ceased payment / tribute to Barbary states / pirates

6. The Jeffersonian-Federalist struggle over the judiciary--its causes, the main points of conflict, and the importance of the outcome for the future of the nation.


Conflict with the Courts - 198


1801 – Executive and Legislative in the hands of the Republicans

Judicial remained under Federalist control (lifetime appointment of Federal judges)


Republican congress – repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801

Eliminating judgeships of Federalist “Midnight Appointments”

1803 – Marbury v. Madison

William Marbury, one of John Adams midnight appointments

Justice of the peace for the District of Columbia

His commission, signed and sealed but NOT delivered before Adams left office.


New Secretary of State under Jefferson, James Madison (future president) refused to hand over the commission


Marbury applied to the Supreme Court for an order directing Madison to deliver the commission.


Court found for Marbury but had no authority to order Madison to deliver the commission.  Why?


Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the courts power to compel executive officials to act (which is the basis for Marbury’s suit)

But, the Court ruled Congress had exceeded its authority in creating the statute

Constitution had defined the powers of the judiciary – legislature had no authority to expand them.

The relevant section of the 1789 act was therefore void.

The Court had asserted its power to nullify an act of congress.


Ironically – Marshall was John Adams Secretary of State – he should have delivered the commission to Marbury

Just before leaving office, Adams appointed John Marshall Chief Justice (served until 1835)

Marshall established himself as a dominant figure on the court.

He established the judiciary as a branch of government coequal with the executive and legislative


Jefferson urged impeachment of Federalist judges

  • John Pickering – district judge of New Hampshire – impeached / convicted / removed based on insanity (questionable assertions)
  • Samuel Chase – Supreme Court Justice – targeted for his outspoken Federalist speeches and views
    • Committed no crime – Congress claimed they could impeach for political reasons
    • House impeached Chase – Senate failed to convict (2/3rd majority required)
    • Important precedent – Impeachment would not become a purely political weapon



7. President Jefferson's constitutional reservations concerning the Louisiana Purchase, and the significance of his decision to accept the bargain.


Doubling the National Domain

Jefferson and Napoleon - 200


Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800 – France regained title to “Louisiana Territory” from Spain


Jefferson entered office as pro French

Concerned with Treaty of San Ildefonso

Grave concerns regarding navigation of the Mississippi River and port privileges at New Orleans

Coincidently, Jefferson sought funding for a naval river fleet and explored an alliance with Britain

Napoleon, had lost much of his army to disease and was preparing for a new war in Europe

He could not fight a war on two fronts North America/New Orleans & Europe


The Louisiana Purchase - 201


Instructed Robert Livingston, ambassador to France, to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans

Livingstone, on his own, sought purchase of entire Louisiana Territory

Napoleon accepted Livingstone’s proposal – Louisiana Territory acquired for $15,000,000

Jefferson was particularly concerned about the lack of a constitutional provision for acquisition of new territory



8. The reasons for President Jefferson's sponsorship of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the importance of that exploration.


Lewis and Clark Explore the West - 202


1804 – Meriwether Lewis and William Clark & 4 dozen men and Shoshone guide Sacajawea

Missouri River across the Rockies to the Snake and Columbia rivers to the Pacific Ocean

A good book – Stephen Ambrose: Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West


1805 – 1806 Zebulon Pike – Missouri River to the Rockies – uncultivable desert

Here are some more recent pictures…


9. The many problems involved in attempting to achieve an understanding of Aaron Burr and his "conspiracy."


The Burr Conspiracy - 202


As the west grew, Federalists, centered in New England, would lose power

Plan for New England succession did not materialize


Vice President Aaron Burr – without political prospects – distrusted by Jefferson after 1800 election

Burr ran for election as Governor of New York

Hamilton slandered Burr, accusing him of treason regarding the New England succession

Burr lost the election, blamed Hamilton, challenged him to a duel

July 1804 – Hamilton killed by Burr in the duel


Burr fled NY to avoid murder charges

Burr joined up with Gen James Wilkinson, governor of Louisiana Territory

  • Expedition to capture Mexico / separate the Southwest from the US with Burr as ruler
  • Most of this is probably untrue but the rumors existed.
  • Burr later led an armed group down the Ohio River
  • Arrested and tried for treason but acquitted
  • Went into self imposed exile in Europe

10. What Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were attempting to accomplish by "peaceable coercion," and why their efforts were not successful.


Expansion and War - 204

1803 Napoleonic Wars – Britain vs. France – both tried to stop US from trading with the other

American westward expansion approaching the Mississippi –

  • Indians align with British in Canada and Spanish in Florida


Conflict on the Seas - 204


American shipping grew rapidly – especially between Europe & West Indies

Britain retained superior naval forces

1805 – British destroy remainder of French navy at Battle of Trafalgar

Napoleon now closes European ports to British trade (Continental System)

  • Napoleon barred neutral ships that had called on British ports
  • Britain ran a naval blockade of European ports
  • Britain required any ship visiting a European port first stop at a British port
  • Two policies in conflict – Americans caught in the middle

Both Britain & France were violating America’s neutrality

Britain the worst offender – stopping ships, seizing sailors (impressments)


Impressment - 204


British navy – wretched conditions – floggings, low pay

Few volunteers, many forced into service (impressed)

Many desertions – many to American vessels

British claimed the right to:

  • Stop and search American merchant ships
  • Reimpress deserters
  • Seize naturalized Americans born in Britain


1807 – Chesapeake (US) and Leopard (British) naval ships

  • British demanded to search the Chesapeake – captain refused
  • Leopard opens fire on Chesapeake – Chesapeake surrenders
  • British seize 4 American sailors, later hang one.
  • Congress out of session – otherwise possible state of war
  • Jefferson expels all British warships from American waters
  • Demands renouncement of impressments
  • Britain returns 3 sailors, disavows action of Leopard
  • Refuses to renouncement impressment


“Peaceable Coercion” - 205


1807 – Embargo Act – prohibited US ships sailing to any foreign port

  • Created a serious depression
  • A few days before leaving office (post election) Jefferson signs bill ending Embargo Act

Election of 1808 – Madison (Republican) wins election

  • Embargo Act replaced by Non-Intercourse Act
  • Trade reopened with all nations except Britain & France
  • 1810 Non-Intercourse Act expires

Macon’s Bill Number 2 replaces Non-Intercourse Act

  • Prohibit commerce with either belligerent if one violates neutral shipping after the other had stopped
  • France announced non-interference with American shipping
  • Limited embargo on Britain
    • Hurt British economy enough that Britain repealed its blockade of Europe – TL2

11. The numerous explanations of the causes of the War of 1812, and why there is so much disagreement among historians.


The “Indian Problem” and the British - 206


William Henry Harrison – committed expansionist – Indian fighter

Congressional delegate from NW Territory 1799

1801 Governor of Indiana Territory – administer Jefferson’s solution to Indian Problem

  • Indians could convert into settled farmers and assimilate
  • Migrate to the west of the Mississippi
  • In either case, required to give up claims to tribal lands in the Northwest Territory



  • Coerced reluctant tribal leaders into treaties for lands in eastern Michigan, southern Indiana, and Illinois
  • In the “Southwest” similar acquisitions in Georgia, Tennessee, and Mississippi
  • Separate tribes helpless to resist

12. The problems caused by Tecumseh's attempts at confederation and by the Spanish presence in Florida as Americans surged westward.


Tecumseh and the Prophet - 207


Rise of two Indian leaders

  • Tenskwatawa – religious leader, orator, known as the Prophet
    • Recovery from alcoholism – virtues of Indian culture, evils of white world
    • Religious revival among tribes
  • Tecumseh – Shooting Star, chief of Shawnees – Prophet’s brother
    • Unite tribes of Mississippi valley
    • Alliance with the British in 1811
    • Fought for the British as a commissioned general in war of 1812



  • Battle of Tippecanoe
  • Camped near Prophetstown November 1811 – provoked a fight
  • Drove off the Indians, burned the town
  • “Only way to make the west safe – drive British out of Canada and annex Canada”


Florida and War Fever - 208


Southerners wanted to acquire Spanish Florida

  • Slaves fled south
  • Indians attacked from Florida into the US
  • American settlers captured Baton Rouge – President Madison annexed the territory


Britain’s growing restrictions on American commerce, including impressments

Threatening access to world markets – domestic food surplus

  • Potential for farmers to migrate to cities – not Jeffersonian Republicanism
  • Needed world markets to sustain agrarian republicanism


War Hawks

  • Henry Clay of Kentucky (Speaker of the House 1811)
  • John C. Calhoun of South Carolina (Committee on Foreign Affairs)
  • June 12 1812 – Declaration of War against Britain

13. The state of the nation in 1812, and how the Madison administration waged war against the world's foremost naval power.


The War of 1812 - 209


Britain preoccupied with European war with France
Fall of 1812, Napoleon launches campaign against Russia (Russian winter – not a good idea)

Late 1813, France on the way to defeat – Britain turns military attention to America


Battles with the Tribes - 209


Early defeat at Detroit after invading Canada

Fort Dearborn (Chicago) fell to an Indian attack


Early Naval victories fell to British superiority and a blockade of American ports.

American victories on the Great Lakes

  • Raid and burn York (Toronto) capital of Canada
  • Battle of Lake Erie – Oliver Hazard Perry
  • Harrison Battle of Thames – death of Tecumseh – weakened Indian resistance


Andrew Jackson

  • Battle of Horseshoe Bend – revenge upon Creek tribe – slaughter women, children, warriors
  • Broke resistance of Creeks – ceded land, migrated west
  • Seized Spanish fort at Pensacola, November 7 1814


Battles with the British  - 209


Napoleon surrendered in 1814 – Britain prepared to invade the US

British Armada up Chesapeake to Patuxent River, near Washington

  • August 24, 1814, government flees, Washington burned, including the White House
  • Proceeded up the Chesapeake towards Baltimore, guarded by Fort McHenry
  • Americans sunk several ships to block entry to the harbor
  • British bombard from a distance
  • A Washington lawyer was detained onboard a British ship while trying to negotiate the release of a prisoner
  • He made note of the evening’s activities…


September 11, 1814, Americans win Battle of Plattsburgh

Northern NY state, secure northern border against British land and sea forces


Battle of New Orleans

  • January 8, 1815 British troops advanced up the Mississippi
  • Andrew Jackson with a ragtag army, dug in behind earthen fortifications
  • Americans repelled several waves of attackers
  • British: 700 dead, 1400 wounded, 500 POWs – Americans: 8 dead, 13 wounded
  • Later, news arrived that the Americans and British had signed a peace treaty several weeks before the Battle of New Orleans

14. The extent of the opposition to the American war effort, and the ways in which the New England Federalists attempted to show their objections.


The Revolt of New England -212


Most battles in the war were American failures

In New England, opposition to the war and Republican government, led by Daniel Webster

December 15, 1814 – Hartford Convention – Constitutional Amendments and hints of succession

Soon thereafter, news of Jackson’s victory and a negotiated peace

Federalists became obsolete and even treasonable – virtual death blow to the Federalist Party

15. The ways in which the skill of the American peace commissioners and the international problems faced by England contributed to a satisfactory--for Americans--peace settlement.


The Peace Settlement - 212


Serious negotiations in August 1814 – Ghent, Belgium

American delegation led by John Quincey Adams, Henry Clay, Albert Gallatin

Final treaty simply ended the fighting

  • Americans gave up demand for British renunciation of impressments and cession of Canada to US
  • Britain gave up request for Indian buffer state in the Northwest and other minor territorial concessions
  • Other disputes referred to arbitration
  • Treaty of Ghent signed December 24, 1814


British exhausted and in debt from wars with Napoleon

With Napoleon’s defeat, Britain less interested in interfering with American commerce

By end of 1815, all impressments had ceased

16. The effects of the War of 1812 on banking, shipping, farming, industry, and transportation.


Since 1815, no hostilities between Britain and America

  • 1815 commercial treaty – American trading rights with the British Empire
  • Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817 – demilitarization of the Great Lakes
  • Since 1872 – US – Canadian border is the longest, undefended international border in the world.


And the Indians –

  • United States failed to restore Indian lands east of the Mississippi – as required in the Treaty of Ghent
  • Tecumseh was dead
  • The British, the most important ally of the Indians, were gone from the Northwest
  • The alliance between Tecumseh and the Prophet was in disarray
  • More intense push of whites into the west
  • Indians much less able to resist than previously


Chapter 8: Varieties of American Nationalism



A thorough study of Chapter Eight should enable the student to understand:

1. The effects of the War of 1812 on banking, shipping, farming, industry, and transportation.

2. The "era of good feelings" as a transitional period.

3. The causes of the Panic of 1819, and the effects of the subsequent depression on politics and the economy.

4. The arguments advanced by North and South during the debates over the admission of Missouri, and how they were to influence sectional attitudes.

5. The ways in which the status of the federal judiciary was changed by the Marshall Court, and how the Court's decisions altered the relationships between the federal government and the states and the federal government and business.

6. The reasons why President James Monroe announced his "doctrine" in 1823, and its impact on international relations at the time.

7. Presidental politics in the "era of good feelings," and how they altered the political system.

8. The frustrations experienced by John Quincy Adams during his term as president.

9. The reasons why Andrew Jackson was elected in 1828, and the significance of his victory.


Main Themes

1. How postwar expansion shaped the nation during the "era of good feelings."

2. How it was that sectionalism and nationalism could exist at the same time and in the same country.

3. How the "era of good feelings" came to an end and a new two-party system emerged.



1. American nationalism: Between 1820 and 1840, many American politicians advocated programs that stressed the supremacy of the central government over the states, called for direct federal involvement to aid the growth of commerce, and in general advocated an aggressive course of action designed to make America a nation without equal. Much of their program, embodied in Henry Clay's American System, resembled Hamiltonian federalism, but with a significant difference. These nationalists, unlike their Federalist counterparts, decided not to oppose the rising tide of democracy, but chose to present their programs in such a way as to appeal to the common man.

2. American System: The plan, advanced by Henry Clay, that was designed to foster commercial growth and economic stability. Its basic components consisted of a tariff to protect "infant industries" and to secure American jobs (thus making it appealing to labor), a national bank into which the money from the tariff (and other taxes) would be deposited, and an internal-improvements program paid for by the federal government. As conceived, money raised from taxes would pay for the roads, canals, and the like designed to improve transportation and thus stimulate more commerce, which would produce more jobs and revenue. To keep this growing economy stable would be the function of the bank, which would issue notes and make loans for business development and expansion. Therefore, all three elements were linked in a cycle of taxing, banking, and spending that made it difficult to oppose one without opposing them all.

3. commerce clause: The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8) that gives the national government the power to regulate foreign commerce as well as commerce between the states (interstate commerce).

4. contract clause: The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 10) that prohibits the government (national or state) and individuals from impairing the obligation of contract.

5. diplomacy: The conducting of negotiations between nations and the drawing up of treaties. The act of concluding an alliance to national advantage.

6. internal improvements / infrastructure: The building of canals and roads, the improvement of harbors, and the clearing of rivers to improve transportation and stimulate commerce. To be done with the help of the national government, this was a major part of the postwar nationalistic program. The concept was opposed by those who felt it was too expensive or was an unconstitutional assumption of the rights and responsibilities of the states.

7. necessary-and-proper clause: The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8) that authorizes Congress to make "all laws" necessary and proper to carry out its powers; also called the "elastic" or "implied powers" clause.

8. wildcat bank: Usually defined as a state bank in the West, organized with little capital resources, free with credit, and generally unsound. These banks were responsible for much of the land speculation in the West, and when the bank of the United States began to tighten credit restrictions, they were among the first to fail. This had much to do with the West's dislike for the Bank.

9. manumission: Formal emancipation from slavery

10. hegemony: Notable political influence or domination over a particular geographic area, such as American hegemony over North and South America

11. majority: In voting – more than half the votes cast (minimum of 50% plus 1)

12. plurality: More votes than any other candidate, but not a majority

13. aristocracy: government by the best individuals or by a small privileged class, perhaps believed to be best qualified

14. plutocracy: government by the controlling, wealthy class

15. Eurocentric: the practice of U.S. foreign policy being focused first and foremost on Europe (vs. Asia or other areas)



After the War of 1812 a new spirit of nationalism and expansion emerged, and the nation, led by a president determined to heal old wounds, embarked on an "era of good feelings"--party and sectional divisions forgotten. That attitude was soon challenged. The 1820s and 1830s were highlighted by two forces, one divisive and the other unifying. The first appeared during the Missouri debates, which, despite overtones that resembled the earlier Federalist-Republican clashes, brought the issue of slavery and its expansion to the forefront. The immediate question--which section would control the Senate--was dealt with through the Missouri Compromise, but the underlying problem was more difficult to resolve. What the debates revealed was that some in the nation saw the addition of slave states (not just western states, but slave states) as a threat. Southern politicians, it was apparent, had come to equate the expansion of slavery with the expansion of their own political philosophy (and power). How true these beliefs were is not the issue. What is important is that they were believed, and, as the years passed, more would come to share these convictions. Countering this divisive force was the growing spirit of nationalism and the emergence of two parties--both with a national following. These developments seemed to overshadow sectional concerns, and with the election of Andrew Jackson, one of the most popular political figures since George Washington, the nation seemed more concerned with unity than division. How long this was to last was another question.


Varieties of American Nationalism - 217

Missouri applies for admission to the Union

·        ·        Free or slaveholding state?

·        ·        Orbit of the North or the South

Missouri Compromise –

·        ·        Missouri a slave state – Maine a free state

·        ·        No slavery in remainder of Louisiana Territory north of 36° 30’ N. Latitude (southern border of Missouri)

·        ·        Symptom of Sectionalism / Sectional Crisis


Strong and Expanding American Economy

Strong Nationalistic feelings – supported by federal government

Spirited Fourth of July Celebrations

July 4, 1826 – 50th Anniversary of Independence

·        ·        Thomas Jefferson dies – his last words, “Is it the fourth?”

·        ·        John Adams dies – his last words, “Thomas Jefferson still survives.”

1. The effects of the War of 1812 on banking, shipping, farming, industry, and transportation.

A Growing Economy - 218

Prosperity following War of 1812

Bust of 1819 – lack of basic institutions to sustain growth


Banking, Currency, and Protection - 218

Bank of the United States (Hamilton) charter expired in 1811

How to protect new industries?

How to provide a nationwide network of roads and waterways


War of 1812 manifested the need for another National Bank

·        ·        State Banks

·        ·        Limited Reserves and specie

·        ·        Bank notes – used as money – varied in value based on bank’s reputation and solvency


Second Bank of the United States – 1816

·        ·        Could not forbid state banks from issuing currency

·        ·        Size and power allowed it to dominate the financial market & state banks


Protection of Industries

·        ·        Industries flourished during the war

·        ·        Dramatic growth in textile industry – New England – home to factory

Post war – British dump textile goods below cost

·        ·        Short term loss to stifle fledgling American textile industry


1816 – Protective Tariff


Transportation - 219


Improvements in transportation system necessary to sustain growth and service markets

·        ·        Government financing of roads

·        ·        Ohio land sales – proceeds to finance a National Road from the Potomac to Ohio Rivers

·        ·        6 – 7 weeks to move goods from Philadelphia to Charleston, S.C.

Pennsylvania finances road construction

·        ·        Steam Powered Shipping (Rivers & Lakes)

·        ·        Mississippi River & Ohio River to Pittsburgh

John C. Calhoun proposes internal improvements at federal level

·        ·        Passed by Congress

·        ·        Vetoed by Madison – last day in office – believed Congress lacked authority to fund


Expanding Westward

The Great Migrations – 221


White migration westward – profound influence on the nation

New regions into the capitalist system

Political ramifications

Influencing factor in the coming of the Civil War


Push / Pull Migration

·        ·        Push from the east – population and economic pressures

o       o       Population increase – natural increase & immigration

o       o       1800 – 1820 nearly doubled (5.3 million to 9.6 million)

o       o       Agricultural lands of the east were largely occupied

·        ·        Pull from the west – availability of new lands – decline of Indian resistance

o       o       Post 1812 – government continues to pus Indians farter west

o       o       Forts along the Great Lakes & upper Mississippi

o       o       “Factor System” – “Governmental welfare” for Indians – dependent vs. hostile

o       o       Pushed out French / Canadian trappers & traders from the American west



The way west…

Ohio and Monongahela Rivers

Erie Canal – 1825

Overland by wagon – often from Cincinnati


White Settlers in the Old Northwest - 222


“Hail, hail, to Michigan… the champions of the west”


Spartan living conditions –

·        ·        Lean-to’s or cabins

·        ·        Corn crop to supplement wild game

·        ·        Rough, lonely existence – poverty & disease

·        ·        Men, women, children all involved in subsistence activities


Groups often traveled together – stayed together

Formed “towns” – systems of mutual aid – barn raising…

Highly mobile – often more than one or two moves


The Plantation System in the Southwest - 222


Like the old South – Cotton

Old South – depleted soil – over planting, erosion


Black Belt of Alabama / Mississippi

·        ·        End of Appalachian Range

·        ·        Dark productive soil – rotted limestone


Spread of Cotton Plantations & Slavery

More prosperous migrations vs. original settlers

·        ·        Herds of livestock

·        ·        Household goods

·        ·        Slaves

·        ·        Planter’s family riding in carriages

·        ·        Larger Log Homes & plantation houses

·        ·        New Rich

·        ·        Assumption / creation of aristocracy


Admission of four new states –














Trade and Trapping in the Far West – 223


Trade from far west of the continent with the United States

Fur traders – Mountain Men

John Jacob Astor – American Fur Company –

·        ·        Pre 1812 - Columbia River, Oregon

·        ·        Post 1812 – Great Lakes to the Rockies


First white settlers

·        ·        Single young men

·        ·        Often married Indian or Hispanic women

·        ·        The Rendezvous - Annual gatherings for supplies, - controlled by companies

·        ·        High profits made by eastern establishment – meager existence for mountain men


Mexico – independence in 1821 from Spain

·        ·        Controlled Texas, California, & southwest

·        ·        Opened its territories to trade with the US – desiring economic revival

·        ·        American traders come into the region – displaced locals (Mexicans)

·        ·        Mexico lost its markets in its own colony

·        ·        Precursor to Texas independence in 1836


Eastern Images of the West – 224


Few trappers kept journals or maps

Explores dispatched by government

·        ·        Stephen H. Long – Red River, Platte Rivers

o       o       Nebraska & eastern Colorado

·        ·        Arkansas River

o       o       Kansas

·        ·        Section located between Missouri River & Rocky Mountains –

o       o       Wholly unfit for cultivation – uninhabitable

o       o       The Great American Desert

o       o       Today, we call it the Great Plains


2. The "era of good feelings" as a transitional period.

The “Era of Good Feelings” – 225


Settlement and trade in the West

Creation of new states

Rising spirit of nationalism & character of national politics


The End of the First Party System – 225


Since 1800 – presidency as the domain of the Virginians – Jefferson, Madison, Monroe

Monroe – 1816

·        ·        61 when elected

·        ·        Soldier in the Revolution

·        ·        Diplomat

·        ·        Cabinet Officer

·        ·        Entered presidency under favorable circumstances

·        ·        Federalist Party in decline, Post War

·        ·        Opportunity for non-partisan government

o       o       Chose John Quincy Adams as Secretary of State – heir apparent – from New England

o       o       Northerners, Southerners, Federalists, and Republicans

o       o       Monroe makes a “Goodwill Tour” of the country – first since Washington


1820 –

·        ·        Re-elected without opposition

·        ·        Federalist party no longer a viable entity

·        ·        1 elector voted against Monroe to ensure Washington would remain the only unanimously elected president


John Quincy Adams and Florida – 226

·        ·        Diplomatic Service

·        ·        Committed nationalist



Most Americans in favor of acquiring Florida

·        ·        Adams begins negotiations with Spain

·        ·        Simultaneously, John C. Calhoun (Secretary of War) orders Andrew Jackson to stop Seminole raids

·        ·        Jackson invades Florida – St. Marks (south of Tallahassee) & Pensacola

·        ·        Adams urges government to embrace Jackson’s actions and claim them as a right of self defense

·        ·        Spanish Empire in serious decline

o       o       Jackson demonstrated US could seize Florida

o       o       Adams implied US may seize Florida

o       o       Position forced Spain into negotiations

o       o       Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819

§         §         Spain ceded Florida to US

§         §         Spain renounces territorial claims north of 42° in the Pacific northwest (southern border of Oregon)

§         §         US gives up claims to Texas

3. The causes of the Panic of 1819, and the effects of the subsequent depression on politics and the economy.

The Panic of 1819 – 226


Preceded by high foreign demand for farm goods – high prices (Napoleonic Wars)

Fueled land boom / land speculation

Easy credit to settlers

National bank began tightening credit

·        ·        Calling in loans – foreclosing mortgages

·        ·        Subsequent failures of State Banks

·        ·        Western settlers blamed the national bank

·        ·        National Bank became a political issue

·        ·        Six years of depression

·        ·        Subsequent discussion on how to encourage and manage territorial expansion without economic destabilization


4. The arguments advanced by North and South during the debates over the admission of Missouri, and how they were to influence sectional attitudes.


Sectionalism and Nationalism – 227

North / South Differences

Temporarily averted by the Missouri Compromise


(Yellow highlights – deletions between 10th and 11th editions)


In the North and South – groups opposed to slavery on moral grounds

·        ·        Manumission Society of New York – rescue runaway slaves

·        ·        Quakers – strengthen anti-slavery laws – protect free blacks

·        ·        Most northern critics of slavery – affluent philanthropists and reformers (Federalists)

·        ·        Hostility to the “Virginia Influence and Southern Rule”


On the whole concern about slavery – moral or political

·        ·        Secondary to concerns about economic competition between North and South

·        ·        Free labor system or Plantation labor system

·        ·        Which would prevail in the expanding western territories?


The Missouri Compromise – 227

States generally entered the union in pairs – one slave, one free

Missouri applies for statehood

·        ·        Slavery long established in Missouri

·        ·        Admission of Missouri (slave) would upset the balance

·        ·        Congressman Tallmadge (NY) proposes amendment – no new slaves into Missouri & gradual emancipation

·        ·        Henry Clay – Speaker of the House

·        ·        If Missouri blocked from slave statehood, Maine (formerly part of Mass.) would be blocked by southerners

·        ·        Compromise –

o       o       Maine admitted as a free state

o       o       Missouri admitted as a slave state

o       o       No slavery in remainder of Louisiana Territory north of 36° 30’ N. Latitude (southern border of Missouri)


5. The ways in which the status of the federal judiciary was changed by the Marshall Court, and how the Court's decisions altered the relationships between the federal government and the states and the federal government and business.


Marshall and the Court – 228


John Marshall – Chief Justice Supreme Court: 1801 – 1835

·        ·        Dominated and defined the court and molded the Constitution

·        ·        Strengthened the Judicial Branch

·        ·        Increased the power of the Federal (National) government

·        ·        Advanced interests of propertied and commercial classes

·        ·        Decisions were highly nationalistic, promoted growth of a strong, unified, and economically developed United States


Marbury v. Madison - 1803


Fletcher v. Peck 1810

·        ·        Court, under Marshall’s leadership rules,

o       o       Land grant was a valid contract and could not be repealed even if corruption was involved


Dartmouth College v. Woodward 1819

·        ·        King George III grants charter in 1769 – pre-revolution – for a government sponsored college

·        ·        New Hampshire Republicans attempt to convert Dartmouth to a private college

·        ·        Court, under Marshall’s leadership rules,

o       o       the Charter was a Contract

o       o       claimed the right to override decisions of state courts


Cohens v. Virginia 1821

·        ·        Court, under Marshall’s leadership affirms,

o       o       Constitutionality of federal review of state court decisions

o       o       States gave up part of their sovereignty in ratifying the constitution

o       o       Courts must submit to federal jurisdiction otherwise federal government would be prostrated at the feet of every state in the Union


McCulloch v. Maryland 1819

·        ·        Congress created the Bank of the United States, opposed by Maryland that wanted to tax the bank

·        ·        Court, under Marshall’s leadership rules,

o       o       Upholds “implied powers” of Congress upholding constitutionality of Bank of US

o       o       Could Congress charter a bank – Yes  (Necessary and Proper clause)

o       o       Could States ban or tax it – No (Power to tax is power to destroy)


Gibbons v. Ogden 1824

·        ·        New York grants Robert Fulton & Robert Livingston exclusive license to carry passengers on Hudson River

·        ·        Fulton & Livingston assign Aaron Ogden business of carrying passengers across the river between NY & NJ

·        ·        Thomas Gibbons gets a congressional license for the same (NY / NJ) passenger ferry traffic

·        ·        Ogden sues Gibbons in NY State court and wins

·        ·        Gibbons appeals to US Supreme Court (appellate jurisdiction)

o       o       Court, under Marshall’s leadership rules,

·        ·        Congress  has the power to regulate Interstate Commerce (Art 1, Sec 8) including navigation

·        ·        Ogden’s state granted monopoly was void


The Court and the Tribes – 229


Johnson v. McIntosh 1823


Illinois and Pinakeshaw tribes had sold parcels of land (Johnson)

·        ·        Later signed a treaty with US government

·        ·        Ownership in question – which contract is valid

·        ·        Court, under Marshall’s leadership rules,

o       o       Tribes had rights to their land which preceded all other American law

o       o       Individual Americans could not buy or take land from the tribes

o       o       Only the Federal Government – Supreme Authority – could take Indian lands


Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831

Court refuses to hear the case – refuses to grant “certiorari”

Cherokee Nation filed against Georgia law abolishing their tribal legislature and courts

(Cherokee had their own written constitution)

·        ·        Certiorari not granted – tribes were not foreign nations

·        ·        The tribes relation to the US resembles that of a ward to his guardian – “trust relationship”

·        ·        US has power over the tribes but accepts substantial responsibility for their welfare

·        ·        Defined a constitutional place for the tribes



Worcester v. Georgia 1832

Georgia law to regulate access to Cherokee country by US citizens

·        ·        Court, under Marshall’s leadership rules,

o       o       Only Federal Government could grant or deny access

o       o       Consolidates Federal authority over states and tribes

o       o       Defined nature of the Indians

·        ·        Sovereign entities within their territorial boundaries

·        ·        Boundaries granted by Federal government

·        ·        Tribes free from the authority of the states

·        ·        Defined a constitutional place for the tribes

·        ·        Federal government was their guardian – with ultimate authority


6. The reasons why President James Monroe announced his "doctrine" in 1823, and its impact on international relations at the time.


The Latin American Revolution and the Monroe Doctrine – 229


American Diplomacy focused on Europe – Eurocentric

Following War of 1812, America looking for foreign economic expansion

Spanish Empire in its death throws – revolution in South & Central America

1815 – US officially neutral / economically pro-revolutionary towards Spanish America

1822 – US establishes diplomatic relations with:

·        ·        Argentina

·        ·        Chile

·        ·        Peru

·        ·        Columbia

·        ·        Mexico

US feared France may help Spain to re-colonize

Britain had designs on Cuba


Monroe Doctrine

·        ·         “American continents no longer considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”

·        ·        Any attempts to colonize considered to be an unfriendly act.

·        ·        US policy to Europe – not to interfere in internal concerns of any of its powers.

·        ·        Established US hegemony in the western hemisphere


7. Presidential politics in the "era of good feelings," and how they altered the political system.


The Revival of Opposition – 231

After 1816, Federalist party ceased to participate in presidential elections

Republicans had evolved into many Federalist positions – economic growth & centralization


The “Corrupt Bargain” – 231


Up to 1824, Presidential candidates nominated by caucuses of the two parties in congress


·        ·        William H. Crawford of Georgia – Republican caucus nominee

·        ·        Nominations from state legislatures

o       o       John Quincy Adams –

§         §         Secretary of State – traditional stepping stone to the presidency – little popular support

o       o       Henry Clay – Speaker of the House

§         §         American System – factory & farm produce, tariffs, national bank, internal improvements

o       o       Andrew Jackson – Senator, military hero, no political record

§         §         Receives a plurality of the votes:

§         §         Jackson  99

§         §         Adams     84

§         §         Crawford          41

§         §         Clay                 37

·        ·        Twelfth Amendment – House to choose among 3  highest electoral votes

o       o       Jackson was Clay’s western rival

o       o       Clay supported Adams – Adams names Clay Secretary of State

o       o       Jacksonians claimed a Corrupt Bargain


8. The frustrations experienced by John Quincy Adams during his term as president.


The Second President Adams – 231


Haunted by Corrupt Bargain

Adams proposed ambitious Nationalist Program similar to Clay’s American Plan

Blocked by congressional Jacksonians

Diplomatic Frustrations

Appointed delegates to inter-American conference

Southerners objected to white Americans mingling with black delegates from Haiti

Georgia governor proceeded with Indian removal over the president’s objections

Mismanaged tariff policies of 1828 earned animosity from New England and westerners


9. The reasons why Andrew Jackson was elected in 1828, and the significance of his victory.

Jackson Triumphant – 232


1828 Election – new two party system

·        ·        Nationalist Republicans – John Quincy Adams

·        ·        Democratic Republicans – Andrew Jackson

o       o       Assault on privilege

o       o       Opposed the “economic aristocracy”

Campaign of personal invective

·        ·        Adams

·        ·        charged with gross waste and extravagance

·        ·        falsely accused of procuring American women for the Russian Czar (while ambassador)

·        ·        Jackson called a murderer (War of 1812) and attacks on his wife

·        ·        An adulterer – knowingly living in sin with the wife of another man

Jackson wins big – 56% popular / 178 – 83 electoral“Era of the Common Man”

 Chapter 9: Jacksonian America


A thorough study of Chapter Nine should enable the student to understand:

1. Andrew Jackson's philosophy of government and his impact on the office of the presidency.

2. The debate among historians about the meaning of "Jacksonian Democracy," and Andrew Jackson's relationship to it.

3. The nullification theory of John C. Calhoun, and President Jackson's reaction to the attempt to put nullification into action.

4. The supplanting of John C. Calhoun by Martin Van Buren as successor to Jackson, and the significance of the change.

5. The reasons why the eastern Indians were removed to the West and the impact this had on the tribes.

6. The reasons for the Jacksonian war on the Bank of the United States, and the effects of Jackson's veto on the powers of the president and on the American financial system.

7. The causes of the Panic of 1837, and the effect of the panic on the presidency of Van Buren.

8. The differences in party philosophy between the Democrats and the Whigs, the reasons for the Whig victory in 1840, and the effect of the election on political campaigning.

9. The negotiations that led to the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, and the importance of the treaty in Anglo-American relations.

10. The reasons why John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster were never able to reach their goal—the White House.



  1. hard money: Specie, coin with a fixed value, which could not be cheaply manufactured to flood the market. Its use made money scarce and credit expensive and difficult, and it discouraged speculation. It also kept wages low and reduced commercial activity. Its advocates were known as "sound money" men.
  2. "Jacksonian Democracy": A term that more accurately describes the spirit of the age than a movement led by Andrew Jackson. During this period (1820-1850), more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated (for white male adults), and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Party, led by Jackson, appealed to this growing body of voters by stressing its belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands, and decentralization of power.
  3. land-poor: The condition in which many speculators found themselves during the Panic of 1837 (and in 1819, as well). Having bought land on credit, they were unable to pay their debts when the land did not sell. Hence, they had a lot of land, but no money, and the result was bankruptcy.
  4. Marxism: The theory that history has been characterized by a struggle between the working classes and their masters, the middle-class capitalists. The outcome of struggle is to be an uprising of the oppressed and the overthrow of capitalism. In part, this belief was shared by John C. Calhoun, who feared that the growth of industrial capitalism in America would lead to just such a class struggle.
  5. party boss: The politician in charge of the machine, usually the ranking elected official in a political unit (state, county, city, and so on); the person responsible for getting out the vote and for dispensing patronage.
  6. political machine: A well-organized local political group that can turn out voters on specific issues. In return for delivering these votes, the machine is allowed to dispense patronage in its particular area.
  7. soft money: Paper money. Easily produced, this currency increased the amount of money in circulation, made credit easier, and made prices higher. Generally favored by speculators, by agricultural interests, and by debtors.
  8. states' rights: The belief that the United States was formed as a compact of sovereign states and that the national government was violating that sovereignty. The theory rests on the conviction that the states did not surrender their sovereignty to the central government by adopting the Constitution and that when their rights are violated, they can act in their own defense.


Chapter  9  -  Jacksonian America - 235


Alexis deTocquevilleDemocracy in America  1835-1840

·        ·        American Society – general equality of condition among the people

·        ·        Political rights to the level of the humblest citizens

·        ·        Dissemination of wealth brings the notion of property within the reach of all

·        ·        Industrialism… manufactures lowers the class of workmen while it raises the class of masters


Greatest danger facing the nation was privilege

Need to eliminate the favored status of powerful elites


Jackson (& Jacksonians)

·        ·        Were not egalitarian

·        ·        Nothing to challenge existence of slavery

·        ·        Harsh assaults on American Indians

·        ·        Accepted economic inequality and social gradation

·        ·        Frontier aristocrat – served by people of wealth & standing

·        ·        Risen to prominence on the basis of talent & energies (meritocracy)

·        ·        Opportunity open to others – aroused by rhetoric

·        ·        Challenge to the Eastern elite from the rising South and West

1. Andrew Jackson's philosophy of government and his impact on the office of the presidency.


The Rise of Mass Politics

The Expanding Electorate – 236


Transformation of American politics extending the right to vote to a new group

·        ·        Until 1820s – white male property owners – only voters

·        ·        Ohio & other new states – all adult white males – voting & office holding

·        ·        Older states respond to meet competition – avoid population loss


Massachusetts observation

·        ·        Rich better represented than the poor

·        ·        Daniel Webster “power naturally and necessarily follows property”


New York

·        ·        Reformers quoted Declaration of Independence…

·        ·        Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness… not property


Rhode Island

Remained restrictive until “Dorr Constitution & Rebellion” in 1840s



·        ·        Election laws favored planters and “old money & power”



·        ·        Free blacks could not vote anywhere

·        ·        Women could not vote anywhere

·        ·        Nowhere was there a secret ballot – ballots inspected by the “powers of the day”


Voting Participation in Presidential Elections – white males








The Legitimization of Party – 238

Growing interest in politics, party organization, party loyalty

Most Americans did not want political parties  - preferred a consensus

New view – parties essential to democracy – challenge the closed elite

·        ·        Ideological commitments would be less important than party loyalty

·        ·        For one party to survive – it needed opposition

·        ·        Each party committed to its own existence

·        ·        Jacksonians became Democrats – forerunner of today’s Democratic party – nation’s oldest

·        ·        Anti-Jacksonians became Whigs

2. The debate among historians about the meaning of "Jacksonian Democracy," and Andrew Jackson's relationship to it.


“President of the Common Man” – 239

·        ·        Early Democratic Party – no uniform ideological position

·        ·        Jacksonian Democracy – equal protection and benefits to all white male citizens and favor no region or class

·        ·        In practice –

o       o       an assault on the Eastern aristocracy

o       o       extended opportunities to West and South

o       o       continuing subjugation of African Americans and Indians

o       o       no political participation for women


First targets – entrenched federal office holders

Offices belonged to the people, not the office holders

·        ·        (Popularized existing) Spoils System – to the victor goes the spoils –

·        ·        20% replacement – same as Jefferson

·        ·        “Right” of elected officials to appoint party faithful


1832 – first Democratic Party Convention

·        ·        Touted as a vehicle for participation by the people (vs. congressional caucus)

·        ·        Reality – party corruption and political exclusivity

·        ·        Appointments continue to be directed to political loyalists

·        ·         

3. The nullification theory of John C. Calhoun, and President Jackson's reaction to the attempt to put nullification into action.


Our Federal Union

Calhoun and Nullification – 241


John C. Calhoun – Secretary of War and VP in JQ Adams administration

Carolinians blamed economic problems on the “tariff of abominations” of 1828

Theory of Nullification

·        ·        Moderate alternative to succession

·        ·        Drawing from Madison & Jefferson on their Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798 – 99)

o       o       Federal government created by the states

o       o       States, not federal government or courts, final arbiters of constitutionality

o       o       States may therefore declare federal laws unconstitutional

o       o       Law would remain unconstitutional until ¾  of the states ratified it as a constitutional amendment

o       o       Objecting state could then choose between acceptance and succession

Calhoun really desired a negotiated settlement – withdrawal of the tariff


4. The supplanting of John C. Calhoun by Martin Van Buren as successor to Jackson, and the significance of the change.


The Rise of Van Buren - 241

Martin Van Buren – Democrat NY – governor and political wizard

·        ·        1829 – resigned governorship to accept Secretary of State from Jackson

·        ·        Member of Jackson’s inner circle – his “Kitchen Cabinet”


Quarrel over Peggy O’Neale

·        ·        Ran a rooming house in DC – Jackson & John Eaton stayed there

o       o       1820s rumor – Eaton & O’Neale romantically involved

o       o       1828 – Mr. O’Neale dies – Eaton and Peggy soon marry

o       o       Eaton named Secretary of War – Peggy O’Neale-Eaton now a cabinet wife

o       o       Mrs. John C. Calhoun- wife of VP – refuses to receive Mrs. Eaton into Washington society

o       o       Jackson furious and reflective of the treatment of his wife – Rachel

o       o       More likely cause was modest social background of Peggy Eaton

o       o       John C. Calhoun sides with his wife on the social issue

o       o       Van Buren befriends the Eatons

o       o       1832 election – VP Calhoun dropped from ticket – presidential hopes vanished

o       o       Martin Van Buren is VP choice in 1832 – elected president in 1836


The Webster-Hayne Debate – 242


Sectional issues intruding into national politics

·        ·        Connecticut senator suggests suspending western land sales

·        ·        Benton from Missouri objects – serves NE at expense of the west

·        ·        Hayne from SC picks up the argument hoping to find an ally for tariff reduction

·        ·        Hayne argues south & west victims of the tyranny of the NE – support for Calhoun’s Nullification Theory

·        ·        Webster attacks Hayne (and Calhoun) for challenging the integrity of the union

·        ·        Debates ensue…

·        ·        Jackson, at a dinner, sides with Webster against Calhoun – Calhoun responds to Jackson


Dangerous lines along the lines of nullification and secession and regional differences are being drawn

The union is not split, but cracks are forming


The Nullification Crisis – 243


1832 – SC responds angrily to tariff bill that offers no relief from 1828 Tariff of Abominations

Some ready to secede – but try nullification first

·        ·        SC votes to nullify tariffs of 1828 and 1832

·        ·        Jackson insists nullification is treason – strengthens forts – sends warships to Charleston

·        ·        Jackson wins approval of “Force Bill” authorizing president to use military to enforce acts of Congress

·        ·        Henry Clay, SC, negotiates tariff reduction

·        ·        SC repeals its nullification of the tariffs then,

·        ·        SC symbolically nullifies the Force Bill

·        ·        SC won tariff reduction but could not alone, defy the federal government (Where did the Civil War start?)


5. The reasons why the eastern Indians were removed to the West and the impact this had on the tribes.


The Removal of the Indians - 244

Jackson wanted the Indians moved out west

His views were consistent with most Americans


White Attitudes Toward the Tribes – 244

Indians originally viewed as “noble savages”

New view was simply “savages” uncivilized and uncivilizable

·        ·        Whites not expected to live in proximity to savage Indians

·        ·        Indian cultures and societies unworthy of respect

·        ·        Fears of endless conflict and violence

·        ·        Insatiable desire for territory by whites

·        ·        Tribes both “sovereign and dependent”

·        ·        Government consistently finding ways to move Indians to allow for white expansion


The Black Hawk War - 244


Old Northwest Indians – last battle – 1831 – 1832

·        ·        Black Hawk & followers refused to recognize previous ceding of lands to US

·        ·        Reoccupied vacant lands

·        ·        Illinois state militia and federal troops tried to exterminate the tribe, even when they attempted to surrender

·        ·        Black Hawk captured – sent on a tour of the East


The “Five Civilized Tribes” – 245


Located in the South

·        ·        Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw

·        ·        Agricultural societies with successful economies

·        ·        Cherokees had a written language and formal constitution

·        ·        States pass Indian regulations

·        ·        Congress passes the Removal Act of 1830 – move Indians to the west


Georgia continued to move Cherokees out despite Worcester v. Georgia Supreme Court ruling

·        ·        Jackson – “John Marshall has made his decision – now let him enforce it.”

·        ·        1835 – federal government “settles with Cherokees”

·        ·        Jackson sends army of 7,000 to forcibly drive Cherokees west


Trails of Tears – 245


The Trail Where They Cried – The Trail of Tears

Cherokees forced march to Indian Territory (Georgia to Oklahoma)

Winter of 1838 – thousands died along the way

All 5 Civilized Tribes relocated between 1830 and 1838

Indian territory consisted of land most whites did not want – for awhile

Some Seminoles resisted the effort to relocate

·        ·        Seminoles under Osceola fought guerrilla warfare in the Everglades

·        ·        Osceola captured under a white flag, imprisoned, died

o       o       White campaign of extermination

o       o       1500 white soldiers died in battle

o       o       Federal government spent $20,000,000

o       o       Seminoles still remained in Florida


The Meaning of Removal – 247


End of 1830s all important Indian societies moved west of Mississippi

·        ·        100 million acres of eastern land ceded

·        ·        Relocated to reservations, surrounded by forts

·        ·        Climate / topography unfamiliar

·        ·        Later incursions by whites


Was removal necessary?

·        ·        New Mexico, Pacific Northwest, Texas, California

·        ·        Lewis & Clark

·        ·        British theory of colonization – plantations separate from natives

·        ·        US Government policies – racist by today’s standards


6. The reasons for the Jacksonian war on the Bank of the United States, and the effects of Jackson's veto on the powers of the president and on the American financial system.


Jackson and The Bank War – 248

Social and territorial issues – willing to use federal power freely

Economic issues – opposed to concentrating power in the federal government / institutions


Biddle’s Institution - 248

Bank of the United States – Philadelphia – Nicholas Biddle (Alan Greenspan of his day)

·        ·        Only place where federal government could deposit its funds

·        ·        Credit to growing enterprises

·        ·        Issued bank notes – dependable medium of exchange nationwide

·        ·        Jackson determined to destroy it



·        ·        Soft Money – more currency, unsupported by gold & silver

·        ·        Hard Money – gold and silver only basis for money (Jackson’s position)


Charter set to expire in 1836

·        ·        1832 – bill to renew charter

·        ·        Approved by congress

·        ·        Vetoed by Jackson

·        ·        Congress failed to override the veto



The “Monster” Destroyed – 249


Jackson re-elected with Van Buren in 1836

Jackson decided to remove government deposits from the Bank

·        ·        Treasury Secretary feared destabilization – refused order

o       o       Fired by Jackson – appoints new Treasury Secretary

·        ·        New secretary refuses to remove deposits

o       o       Fired by Jackson – appoints new Treasury Secretary

·        ·        Roger B. Taney – (future CJ Supreme Court)

o       o       Moves governments deposits to a number of state banks


·        ·        Called in loans and raised interest rates

·        ·        Created recession – hoping to force congress to re-charter the bank


Both Jackson and Biddle acting recklessly

·        ·        Biddle ultimately reversed himself

·        ·        Jackson won the political victory

·        ·        Bank expired in 1836

·        ·        Fragmented and unstable banking system for the better part of the next 100 years


The Taney Court – 250


1835 – John Marshall (last of the Federalists) dies

Jackson appoints Roger B. Taney as Chief Justice

Modify Marshall’s vigorous nationalism


Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge - 1837


·        ·        Charles River Bridge Co. had a long standing charter from the state to operate a toll bridge

·        ·        Claimed the charter was a “contract”

·        ·        Marshall court ruled states had no right to abrogate contracts

·        ·        New Warren bridge would abrogate the contract


Court, under Taney’s leadership rules

·        ·        Object of government is to promote happiness

·        ·        State’s obligation of happiness took precedence over contract

·        ·        State could abrogate to effect well being of the community


Who owned Charles River Bridge?

·        ·        Old money, eastern aristocrats from Harvard


Jacksonian Ideal –

·        ·        Key to democracy was an expansion of economic opportunity, which would not occur if older corporations could maintain monopolies and choke off competition from newer companies


7. The differences in party philosophy between the Democrats and the Whigs, the reasons for the Whig victory in 1840, and the effect of the election on political campaigning.


The Changing Face of American Politics – 251

  • Growing opposition to Jacksonian tactics
  • Whigs – after the English party – who worked to limit the power of the King


Democrats and Whigs - 251


Democrats in the 1830s

·        ·        Envisioned a steadily expanding economic / political opportunity for white males

·        ·        Government should be limited to attacking centers of corrupt privilege

·        ·        Not allow artificial privilege to stifle (white male) opportunity

·        ·        Strong among small merchants, workingmen NE, southern planters suspicious of industrial growth

·        ·        Supported by Irish and German Catholics


Whigs (Whiggery)

·        ·        Expanded the power of the federal government

·        ·        Encouraging industrial and commercial development

·        ·        Consolidated economic system

·        ·        Cautious westward expansion

·        ·        Strong among merchants / manufactures in the northeast, wealthy southern planters, ambitious farmers and rising commercial class of the west

·        ·        Wealthier than democrats – aristocratic backgrounds

·        ·        Supported by Evangelical Protestants

·        ·        No single leader – more position based –


Whigs aligned with the anti-Mason frenzy

·        ·        Society of Freemasons – secret society

·        ·        William Morgan disappeared before publishing Masonic secrets

·        ·        Whigs attacked Jackson and Van Buren – both Masons.

8. The reasons why John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster were never able to reach their goal—the White House.



Whig Leaders – Great Triumvirate: Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John Calhoun

·        ·        Henry Clay

o       o       American Plan

o       o       Ran for president 3 times – never won


·        ·        Daniel Webster

o       o       Great orator (public speaker)

o       o       Aligned with the Bank of the United States

o       o       Favored protective tariffs

o       o       Reliance on privileged class for financial support

o       o       Fondness for brandy


·        ·        John C. Calhoun

o       o       Nullification Controversy did him in

o       o       Supported in the South

o       o       Supported the National Bank


Whigs could not consolidate behind a single candidate


9. The causes of the Panic of 1837, and the effect of the panic on the presidency of Van Buren.

Van Buren and the Panic of 1837 - 252


Jackson retired from public life in 1837

Van Buren inherited economic difficulties – devastated Democrats / helped Whigs


1836 election – nationwide economic boom

·        ·        Canal and Railroad building at a peak

·        ·        Money plentiful, credit easy

·        ·        Land business booming from federal land sales

·        ·        Federal budget surplus – government out of debt

·        ·        Surplus distributed to states – spent on roads, railroads, canals

·        ·        Withdrawal of federal funds from state banks caused state banks to have to call in their loans

·        ·        Land being sold for state bank paper money

Specie Circular

·        ·        Jackson issues proclamation that public lands only bought by gold or silver or paper backed by same

·        ·        Produced a financial panic

o       o       Banks and businesses failed

o       o       Unemployment grew

o       o       Bread riots

o       o       Projects failed

o       o       Worst depression in history – lasted 5 years

o       o       Political catastrophe for Van Buren

Distribution of treasury surplus weakened the state banks as did the Specie Circular

Panic of 1837 occurred in a Democratic administration – they paid the price.

Van Buren opposed government intervention in the economy

1840 – Van Buren’s Independent Treasury – “government bank” divorced from other banks


The Log Cabin Campaign - 254


1840 – Whig convention – William Henry Harrison and John Tyler

Harrison famed Indian fighter